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Systematic Review
Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review
Idris Nasir Abdullahi, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Peter Elisha Ghamba, Pius Omoruyi Omosigho, Zakariyya Muhammad Bello, Bamidele Soji Oderinde, Samuel Ayobami Fasogbon, Lawal Olayemi, Isa Muhammad Daneji, Muhammad Hamis Musa, Justin Onyebuchi Nwofe, Nkechi Blessing Onukegbe, Chukwudi Crescent Okume, Sanusi Musa, Abubakar Muhammad Gwarzo, Odunayo Oyetola Rahmat Ajagbe
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020071.   Published online November 26, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071
  • 12,323 View
  • 234 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.
METHODS
A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.
RESULTS
Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of West Nile Virus Disease in Humans and Horses: Exploiting Similarities for Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance
    Erika R. Schwarz, Maureen T. Long
    Viruses.2023; 15(6): 1230.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies Directed against Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses and Associated Risk Factors in Madagascar, 2011 to 2013
    Anaïs Broban, Marie-Marie Olive, Michael Luciano Tantely, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Christophe Rogier, Jean-Michel Heraud, Soa Fy Andriamandimby
    Viruses.2023; 15(8): 1707.     CrossRef
  • Non-traumatic coma in young children in Benin: are viral and bacterial infections gaining ground on cerebral malaria?
    Josselin Brisset, Karl Angendu Baki, Laurence Watier, Elisée Kinkpé, Justine Bailly, Linda Ayédadjou, Maroufou Jules Alao, Ida Dossou-Dagba, Gwladys I. Bertin, Michel Cot, Farid Boumédiène, Daniel Ajzenberg, Agnès Aubouy, Sandrine Houzé, Jean-François Fau
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Scoping Review of West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Studies among African Equids
    Olaolu T. Olufemi, Marta Barba, Janet M. Daly
    Pathogens.2021; 10(7): 899.     CrossRef
Original Article
Community-based surveillance of Cryptosporidium in the indigenous community of Boliwong, Philippines: from April to December 2017
Ryan V. Labana, Julieta Z. Dungca, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018047.   Published online September 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018047
  • 13,054 View
  • 294 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017.
METHODS
Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique.
RESULTS
Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (χ2 =8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p<0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p<0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Interplay Between Household Risk Perception of Parasitic Infections and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Practices: Evidence From an Urban Poor Community in the Philippines
    Ryan V Labana, Ma. Cate Nicole M Borda, Ryan Toribio A Campo, Maria Antonia V Ocampo
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Domesticated animal reservoirs of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in agricultural farms in Laguna and Quezon provinces, Philippines
    Vachel Gay V. Paller, David Lester A. Mendoza, Jeph Roxy M. Macaraig
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats and dogs: What is the real zoonotic risk?
    Amanda D. Barbosa, Siobhon Egan, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao, Una Ryan
    Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases.2023; 4: 100158.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Human Cryptosporidiosis in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
    Xin Yang, Yaqiong Guo, Lihua Xiao, Yaoyu Feng
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination in Laguna Lake, Philippines
    Laurice Beatrice Raphaelle O. dela Peña, Mark Raymond A. Vejano, Windell L. Rivera
    Journal of Water and Health.2021; 19(3): 534.     CrossRef
  • Cryptosporidium in the Philippines
    Ryan Vidal Labana
    International Annals of Science.2018; 6(1): 18.     CrossRef
Reviews
Development of Policy and Strategy for the Control of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Korea.
Seung Il Choi, Byung Hoon Jeong, Yong Sun Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2005;27(1):81-89.
  • 65,535 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
Through the understanding of the current status of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE), this study was conducted to contribute to the development of policy and strategy for the control of TSE in Korea in order to keep Korea as a bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)- and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease(vCJD)-free country. BSE and vCJD cases have not been found in Korea. During 2001-2004, the number of patients who have been diagnosed as a definite or probable CJD was 121, which are consisted of 62 male and 59 female(average age: 63 years old). The occurrence of the patients was 5-59 people per year until 2003 and has been gradually increasing due to the recent increase in the diagnostic rate rather than the increase of the incidence. In 2004, the annual occurrence of sporadic CJD(sCJD) in Korea was 1 people per million, which is similar to the average occurrence rate of the world. Two cases of chronic wasting disease(CWD) in deer were found in Chungcheongbuk-do, one in August 2001 and one in October 2001. After that, 4 more CWD-affected deer have been reported in Kyungsangnam-do area in November 2004. We have also examined the possibility that Korean CJD occurred as a result of dietary exposure to BSE. Fortunately, all of Korean CJD patients were not vCJD cases. However, if BSE occurs in Korea, there is a great potential for most of the Korean population to be easily infected with BSE due to their highly susceptible genotype to BSE infection as well as their traditional food habit. In 2003, the total number of people who left Korea was almost identical with the total number of people who entered Korea. However, we could not analyze the number of people who visited or stayed in the UK and Europe during 1980s~1990s, in which BSE was prevalent in Europe, because there was no statistical data available.
Summary
Introduction of zoonses in Korea.
Seung churl Park, Byung Chul Chun, Ki Dong Park
Korean J Epidemiol. 2005;27(1):1-11.
  • 65,535 View
  • 46 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Many new human pathogens that have emerged or reemerged worldwide originated from animals or from products of animal origin. Many animal species as well as categories of agents have been involved in the emergence of diseases. Nearly all of these emergent disease episodes have involved zoonotic infectious agents; that is, they have involved the transmission of the etiologic agent to humans from an ongoing reservoir life cycle in animals or arthropods. Control of zooneses depends on attempts to reduce vector populations of limit contact with reservior species. But in most instances, the control efforts require environmental or human behavioral modification in addition to direct efforts at vector population reduction. We described the general ecological characteristics of zoonses and epidemiologic features of 7 important zoonoses in Korea-anthrax, brucellosis, rabies, E. coli O157 infection, japanese B encephalitis, bovine spongiform encephalitis and variant Creutzfelt-Jacob diseases, and high pathogenic avian influenza. We have made some suggestions in this article. First the network of medical field and veterinary field(including experts and governmental organization) should be systematically organized in zoonosis surveillance, epidemic investigation, outbreak control and so forth. Second, we should practically prepare the new emerging epidemics-including pandemic and bioterrorism in connection with zoonoses control. Third, we need ecological and epidemiological basic studies on zoonoses in Korea, and finally, the zoonoses control policy should be connected food safety.
Summary
Original Articles
An Epidemiologic Study on Sudden Deaths of Cattle Occurred in Kyongju.
Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Jung Ran Kim, Ik Jung Kim, Gyoung Yim Ha
Korean J Epidemiol. 2001;23(1):59-68.
  • 5,731 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to provide the baseline data for the epidemiologic and microbiologic investigation for the etiology of sudden deaths of cattle in Sara-Ri, Seo Myun, Kyongju.
METHODS
This survey was performed between April 11 and 22, 1994. Epidemiologic investigation consisted of interview of the residents, as well as pathologic and microbiologic test on tissues and blood samples from cardiac puncture.
RESULTS
The dead numbers of cattle were 149 in 35 households during about 20 years. The cows(63.9%) were more than bulls(36.1%) and most of them were raised in playpen(95.7%). The first death occurred in 1974, and then number of deaths increased until 1994. Besides the age of cattle at death was over two years old (88.3%), most of them(69.4%) died within one hour after onset of noticeable symptom by the farmers. The most common symptom of cattle at death was 'sudden death after screaming(71.1%)' and 'seizure (33.3%)'. Colonies from blood of case 3 showed double hemolysis in blood agar plate. The microbiologic test results in the culture of Clostridium perfringens. The pathological features were characterized as most of renal tubules revealed coagulative necrosis. Some gram-positive bacilli are scattered in interstitium.
CONCLUSIONS
Above results suggest C. perfringens as a possible pathogen of this ourbreak in livestock. The possibility of human infection, although nonfatal, and lack of vaccination against C. perfringens raises a need for stronger preventive action toward this communicable disease of cattle on this village.
Summary
A Case of Ulceroglandular Tularemia Occurred In Korea.
Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Woo Sup Ahn, Moon Youn Kim, Dong Hoon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(1):32-38.
  • 5,443 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis. It is primarily a disease of wild animals. Human infection is incidental and usually results from interaction with biting or blood-sucking insect, wild or domestic animals or the environment. It is common in United States. An increasing number of cases have been reported from the Scandinavian countries, eastern Europe, Siberia, and Japan. But In Korea it has not been reported. A 40-year old male visited the department of Surgery on Jan 13, 1997 complaining multiple swollen lymph-nodes on his axillae and upper right arm for about ten days. On Dec 25, 1996, he found a dead wild rabbit at mountainside nearby, cooked it himself and ate it with his friends. He informed us that he got light injury on both hands while he was walking on the mountainside. On Dec 28, he started to suffer from high fever, fatigue and loss of appetite lasting for a day. After medication at a local clinic for several day, symptoms were somewhat relieved. A week later(Jan 4, 1997), several erythematous lesions developed on his both hands, which left ulcerations on the skin. Both axillary lymph nodes were swollen at both sides, but not tender. He visited the department of surgery on Jan 13 and he admitted on Jan 15. During hospitalization, the lymph nodes were surgically removed from both axillae and upper left arm. On microbiologic examination, small aerobic gram negative coccobacilli were grown on the chocolate agar plate in aerobic condition with 5% CO2 at 37 degrees centigrade. On Feb 10, fine needle aspiration from the liver abscess was done, drawing 3 ml of yellowish thick pustular material, but the microorganism was not isolated at the smear and culture of this material in the same condition as described above. After admission, he was treated with antibiotics(cefazole and marocin). His general conditions and laboratory results, including liver function, were markedly improved. He was discharged on Feb 12 and appears well on subsequent follow-ups. The microorganism and lymph nodes were sent to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States for further evaluation. A twostep indirect immunoalkaline phosphatase technique using an anti-F. tularensis antibody was performed on the lyph nodes having a positive reaction. The immunohistochemical stain demonstrated intense positivity in the stellate abscesses and fine granular reaction in some of the vessels in the paracortical region. Also F. tularensis was identified in the agar plug by culture morphology and immunofluorescence antibody test. We report a case of F. tularensis in Korea for the first time. Further studies were recommened for epidemiological characteristics and prevention of the disease.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health