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4 "Surveys and questionnaires"
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Smokeless tobacco consumption and its association with tobacco control factors in the Western Pacific Region: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2015-2019
Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Anusha Manoharan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022103.   Published online November 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022103
  • 3,108 View
  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption and its associations with tobacco control factors among school-going youth in 18 Western Pacific Region (WPR) countries.
METHODS
We analyzed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2014-2019) microdata from 18 WPR countries and estimated weighted prevalence rates of ST consumption, cigarette smoking, and dual use. We used multilevel binary logistic regression to examine the associations of ST consumption and dual use with demographic variables, exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER indicators.
RESULTS
Data from 58,263 school-going youth were analyzed. The prevalence of past 30-day ST consumption was highest in Kiribati (42.1%), the Marshall Islands (26.1%), Micronesia (21.3%), Palau (16.0%), and Papua New Guinea (15.2%). In adjusted multilevel models, ST consumption and dual use were significantly associated with sex, age, parental smoking, pro-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER score. For each unit increase in score for cessation programs, we observed approximately 1.4-fold increases in the odds of youth ST consumption (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.66) and dual use (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.86). Similarly, for each unit increase in score for health-related warnings, the odds of both ST consumption (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.53) and dual use (aOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.42) decreased by approximately 60%.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of youth ST consumption was substantial in the Pacific Islands, exceeding that of cigarette smoking in some countries. Implementing MPOWER measures for ST products could help reduce ST consumption.
Summary
Key Message
The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption, and cigarette smoking is considerably high among the school going youth in five pacific island nations of Western Pacific Region. Exposure to pro-tobacco factors and parental smoking were positively associated with youth smokeless tobacco consumption as well as dual use (both smokeless tobacco and cigarettes smoking) Closer monitoring and strict tobacco control policies are needed to prevent further escalation of smokeless tobacco consumption.
Development and validation of a sunlight exposure questionnaire for urban adult Filipinos
Marc Gregory Yu, Nina Castillo-Carandang, Maria Elinor Grace Sison, Angelique Bea Uy, Katrina Lenora Villarante, Patricia Maningat, Elizabeth Paz-Pacheco, Eileen Abesamis-Cubillan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018050.   Published online October 11, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018050
  • 14,614 View
  • 191 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To develop and validate a self-reported sunlight exposure questionnaire (SEQ) for urban adult Filipinos.
METHODS
The study included adults (19-76 years old) in Metro Manila, Philippines, well-versed in the Filipino (Tagalog) language and had resided in Metro Manila for at least 1 year. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, active skin disorders, and immunocompromised states. An expert panel created a questionnaire in Likert-scale format based on a conceptual framework and 4 existing instruments. The study proceeded in 4 phases: questionnaire item development, translation and back-translation, pretesting, and construct validity and reliability testing using factor analysis, the Cronbach alpha coefficient, and the paired t-test.
RESULTS
A 25-item, self-administered, Filipino (Tagalog) SEQ answerable using a 4-point Likert scale was created. The questionnaire was administered to 260 adult participants twice at a 2-week interval, with all participants completing both the first and second rounds of testing. All questionnaire items possessed adequate content validity indices of at least 0.86. After factor analysis, 3 questionnaire domains were identified: intensity of sunlight exposure, factors affecting sunlight exposure, and sun protection practices. Internal consistency was satisfactory for both the overall questionnaire (Cronbach alpha, 0.80) and for each of the domains (Cronbach alpha, 0.74, 0.71, and 0.72, respectively). No statistically significant differences were observed in the responses between the first and second rounds of testing, indicating good test-retest reliability.
CONCLUSIONS
We developed a culturally-appropriate SEQ with sufficient content validity, construct validity, and reliability to assess sunlight exposure among urban adult Filipinos in Metro Manila, Philippines.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the sunlight exposure questionnaire
    Xiaoxia Wang, Qin Wang, Zhe Li, Mengjie Chen, Maoting Guo, Laixi Kong, Liyuan Chen, Xiaolong Li, Junjun Li, Qieyan Cao, Zhenhua Luo, Zhenzhen Xiong, Dan Zhao
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Development and Validation of Vitamin D- Food Frequency Questionnaire for Moroccan Women of Reproductive Age: Use of the Sun Exposure Score and the Method of Triad’s Model
    Noura Zouine, Ilham Lhilali, Aziza Menouni, Lode Godderis, Adil El Midaoui, Samir El Jaafari, Younes Zegzouti Filali
    Nutrients.2023; 15(4): 796.     CrossRef
  • Sun Exposure Score and Vitamin D Levels in Moroccan Women of Childbearing Age
    Ilham Lhilali, Noura Zouine, Aziza Menouni, Lode Godderis, Marie-Paule Kestemont, Adil El Midaoui, Samir El Jaafari, Younes Filali-Zegzouti
    Nutrients.2023; 15(3): 688.     CrossRef
  • Association of sunlight exposure with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among working urban adult Filipinos
    Noemie Marie M. Mansibang, Marc Gregory Y. Yu, Cecilia A. Jimeno, Frances Lina Lantion-Ang
    Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia.2020; 6(3): 133.     CrossRef
Perspective
The direction of restructuring of a Korea field epidemiology training program through questionnaire survey among communicable disease response staff in Korea
Moo Sik Lee, Kwan Lee, Jee-Hyuk Park, Jee-Young Hong, Min-Young Jang, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Sang-Yun Cho, Sun-Ja Choi, JeongIk Hong
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017032.   Published online July 24, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017032
  • 13,451 View
  • 179 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
We used a survey about the need for an educational training of infectious disease response staff in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and officer in metropolitan cities and provincial government to conduct field epidemiological investigation. The survey was conducted from January 25 to March 15, 2016. A total of 173 participants were selected from four different groups as follows: 27 clinical specialists, 22 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officers, 82 KCDC staff, and 42 local health department officials. Results revealed that 83% of KCDC staff and 95% of local health department officials agreed on the need for educational training to strengthen capability of personnel to conduct epidemic research and investigation. The level of their need for training was relatively high, while self-confidence levels of individuals to conduct epidemic research and investigation was low. It was concluded that there was a need to develop training programs to enhance the ability of public health officials, EIS officers, KCDC staff, and local health department personnel to conduct epidemic research and investigation.
Summary
Korean summary
2015년 한국의 메르스 유행후 한국의 감염병 대응인력을 대상으로 한 조사분석을 통하여 역학조사관 교육 개편의 필요성을 확인하고, 세부 교육과정, 방법 및 내용 등 포괄적인 교육강화 및 개선방안을 모색하여 향후 역학조사관 신규 교육프로그램의 개발과 역량강화 방안을 제시하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Perceived sources of occupational burn-out and embitterment among front-line health workers for COVID-19 control in Gyeonggi province, South Korea: a qualitative study
    Bee-Ah Kang, Sijoung Kwon, Myoungsoon You, Heeyoung Lee
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2022; 79(4): 245.     CrossRef
Method
Assessing measurement error in surveys using latent class analysis: application to self-reported illicit drug use in data from the Iranian Mental Health Survey
Kazem Khalagi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Keramat Nourijelyani, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Ahmad Hajebi, Vandad Sharif, Reza Radgoodarzi, Mitra Hefazi, Abbas Motevalian
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016013.   Published online April 10, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016013
  • 15,737 View
  • 256 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Latent class analysis (LCA) is a method of assessing and correcting measurement error in surveys. The local independence assumption in LCA assumes that indicators are independent from each other condition on the latent variable. Violation of this assumption leads to unreliable results. We explored this issue by using LCA to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the Iranian Mental Health Survey. The following three indicators were included in the LCA models: five or more instances of using any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator A), any use of any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator B), and the self-perceived need of treatment services or having received treatment for a substance use disorder in the past 12 months (indicator C). Gender was also used in all LCA models as a grouping variable. One LCA model using indicators A and B, as well as 10 different LCA models using indicators A, B, and C, were fitted to the data. The three models that had the best fit to the data included the following correlations between indicators: (AC and AB), (AC), and (AC, BC, and AB). The estimated prevalence of illicit drug use based on these three models was 28.9%, 6.2% and 42.2%, respectively. None of these models completely controlled for violation of the local independence assumption. In order to perform unbiased estimations using the LCA approach, the factors violating the local independence assumption (behaviorally correlated error, bivocality, and latent heterogeneity) should be completely taken into account in all models using well-known methods.
Summary

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