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Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran
Behzad Pourhossein, Saber Esmaeili, Miklós Gyuranecz, Ehsan Mostafavi
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015050.   Published online November 17, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015050
  • 14,205 View
  • 124 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran.
METHODS
In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS
In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Fortyeight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia.
CONCLUSIONS
No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent.
Summary

Citations

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  • Francisella and tularemia in western Asia, Iran: a systematic review
    Zahra Fooladfar, Farhad Moradi
    New Microbes and New Infections.2023; 52: 101092.     CrossRef
  • The source of the Black Death in fourteenth-century central Eurasia
    Maria A. Spyrou, Lyazzat Musralina, Guido A. Gnecchi Ruscone, Arthur Kocher, Pier-Giorgio Borbone, Valeri I. Khartanovich, Alexandra Buzhilova, Leyla Djansugurova, Kirsten I. Bos, Denise Kühnert, Wolfgang Haak, Philip Slavin, Johannes Krause
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    Journal of Education and Health Promotion.2022; 11(1): 362.     CrossRef
  • Francisella tularensis survey among ranchers and livestock in western Iran
    Hossein Ahangari Cohan, Mahmoud Jamshidian, Mahdi Rohani, Meysam Moravedji, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.2021; 74: 101598.     CrossRef
  • Vector-borne diseases in Iran: epidemiology and key challenges
    Najmeh Parhizgari, Norair Piazak, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Future Microbiology.2021; 16(1): 51.     CrossRef
  • Rodent Ectoparasites in the Middle East: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Md Mazharul Islam, Elmoubashar Farag, Khalid Eltom, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Devendra Bansal, Francis Schaffner, Jolyon M. Medlock, Hamad Al-Romaihi, Zilungile Mkhize-Kwitshana
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  • Francisella tularensis human infections in a village of northwest Iran
    Saber Esmaeili, Mahdi Rohani, Ahmad Ghasemi, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Simin Khayatzadeh, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Hossein Ahangari Cohan, Anders Johansson, Max Maurin, Ehsan Mostafavi
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Surveillance of Francisella tularensis in surface water of Kurdistan province, west of Iran
    Hossein Ahangari Cohan, Mahmoud Jamshidian, Mahdi Rohani, Meysam Moravedji, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.2020; 69: 101419.     CrossRef
  • Wild Rodents and Their Ectoparasites in an Enzootic Plague Focus, Western Iran
    Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Mohammad Reza Abai, Jamshid Darvish, Iraj Mobedi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.2020; 20(5): 334.     CrossRef
  • Cross-sectional sero-prevalence of tularemia among murine rodents of Nepal
    Narayan Acharya, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Ishwari Prasad Dhakal
    Comparative Clinical Pathology.2019; 28(2): 517.     CrossRef
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    Shahyad Azari-Hamidian, Behzad Norouzi, Ralph E. Harbach
    Acta Tropica.2019; 194: 106.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological survey of tularemia in Ilam Province, west of Iran
    Saber Esmaeili, Ahmad Ghasemi, Razi Naserifar, Ali Jalilian, Leila Molaeipoor, Max Maurin, Ehsan Mostafavi
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Seroepidemiological study of Q fever, brucellosis and tularemia in butchers and slaughterhouses workers in Lorestan, western of Iran
    Saber Esmaeili, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Hamid Mokhayeri, Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Max Maurin, Mahdi Rohani, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.2019; 66: 101322.     CrossRef
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    Mousa khosravani
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases.2018; 42(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2018; 12(4): e0006256.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Survey of Tularemia and Plague in Small Mammals From Iran
    Ehsan Mostafavi, Ahmad Ghasemi, Mahdi Rohani, Leila Molaeipoor, Saber Esmaeili, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Mansour Aliabadian, Anders Johansson
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Field Study of Plague and Tularemia in Rodents, Western Iran
    Ehsan Mostafavi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Alireza Japoni-Nejad, Saber Esmaeili, Jamshid Darvish, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Ali Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Behzad Pourhossein, Ahmad Ghasemi, Miklós Gyuranecz, Elisabeth Carniel
    Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases.2017; 17(4): 247.     CrossRef
  • Upsurge of Rodents’ Population in a Rural Area of Northeastern Iran Raised Concerns about Rodent-borne Diseases
    Ahmad Ghasemi, Saber Esmaeili, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Hamed Hanifi, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Mahdi Rohani, Ehsan Mostafavi
    Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases .2017; 5(1): 21.     CrossRef
An epidemiological comparative study on diagnosis of rodent leptospirosis in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran
Behzad Esfandiari, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Pejvak Khaki, Ehsan Mostafavi, Jamshid Darvish, Soheila Moradi Bidhendi, Hamed Hanifi, Hossein Nahrevanian
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015012.   Published online February 23, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015012
  • 18,605 View
  • 179 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by leptospires, in which transmission occurs through contact with contaminated biological fluids from infected animals. Rodents can act as a source of infection for humans and animals. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in humid, tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study was to compare culture assays, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and nested PCR (n-PCR), for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in rodents in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.
METHODS
One hundred fifty-one rodents were trapped alive at 10 locations, and their urine and kidney samples were collected and used for the isolation of live Leptospira. The infecting serovars were identified and the antibody titres were measured by MAT, using a panel of 20 strains of live Leptospira species as antigens. The presence of leptospiral DNA was evaluated in urine and kidney samples using PCR and n-PCR.
RESULTS
No live leptospires were isolated from the kidney and urine samples of the rodents. Different detection rates of leptospirosis were observed with MAT (21.2%), PCR (11.3%), and n-PCR (3.3%). The dominant strain was Leptospira serjoehardjo (34.4%, p=0.28), although other serotypes were also found. The prevalence of positive leptospirosis tests in rodents was 15.9, 2.6, and 2.6% among Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and Apodemus sylvaticus, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Leptospirosis was prevalent in rodents in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. MAT was able to detect leptospires more frequently than culture or PCR. The kidney was a more suitable site for identifying leptospiral DNA by n-PCR than urine. Culture was not found to be an appropriate technique for clinical diagnosis.
Summary

Citations

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    SharvananE Udayar, NarasimhaB Chengalarayappa, Ashwini Madeshan, Manjunatha Shivanna, Krishnaveni Marella
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2023; 48(2): 316.     CrossRef
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    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.2022; 82: 101758.     CrossRef
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    Elena Harran, Christo Hilan, Zouheira Djelouadji, Florence Ayral
    Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.2022; 7(10): 260.     CrossRef
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Review
Tularemia, a re-emerging infectious disease in Iran and neighboring countrie
Afsaneh Zargar, Max Maurin, Ehsan Mostafavi
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015011.   Published online February 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015011
  • 20,414 View
  • 201 Download
  • 30 Web of Science
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease transmitted by direct contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ingestion of contaminated meat or water, and skin contact with any infected material. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, including Iran and its neighbors to the north, northeast, and northwest.
METHODS
In this paper, the epidemiology of tularemia as a re-emerging infectious disease in the world with a focus on Iran and the neighboring countries is reviewed.
RESULTS
In Iran, positive serological tests were first reported in 1973, in wildlife and domestic livestock in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country. The first human case was reported in 1980 in the southwest of Iran, and recent studies conducted among at-risk populations in the western, southeastern, and southwestern parts of Iran revealed seroprevalences of 14.4, 6.52, and 6%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Several factors may explain the absence of reported tularemia cases in Iran since 1980. Tularemia may be underdiagnosed in Iran because Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica is likely to be the major etiological agent and usually causes mild to moderately severe disease. Furthermore, tularemia is not a disease extensively studied in the medical educational system in Iran, and empirical therapy may be effective in many cases. Finally, it should be noted that laboratories capable of diagnosing tularemia have only been established in the last few years. Since both recent and older studies have consistently found tularemia antibodies in humans and animals, the surveillance of this disease should receive more attention. In particular, it would be worthwhile for clinical researchers to confirm tularemia cases more often by isolating F. tularensis from infected humans and animals.
Summary

Citations

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