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COVID-19: Systematic Review
Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: a systematic umbrella review of the global evidence
Md Mahbub Hossain, Abida Sultana, Neetu Purohit
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020038.   Published online June 2, 2020
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  • 215 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Transmission of infectious diseases is often prevented by quarantine and isolation of the populations at risk. These approaches restrict the mobility, social interactions, and daily activities of the affected individuals. In recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quarantine and isolation are being adopted in many contexts, which necessitates an evaluation of global evidence on how such measures impact the mental health outcomes among populations. This umbrella review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for preventing infectious diseases.
We searched nine major databases and additional sources and included articles if they were systematically conducted reviews, published as peer-reviewed journal articles, and reported mental health outcomes of quarantine or isolation in any population.
Among 1,364 citations, only eight reviews met our criteria. Most of the primary studies in those reviews were conducted in high-income nations and in hospital settings. These articles reported a high burden of mental health problems among patients, informal caregivers, and healthcare providers who experienced quarantine or isolation. Prevalent mental health problems among the affected individuals include depression, anxiety, mood disorders, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, insomnia, fear, stigmatization, low self-esteem, lack of self-control, and other adverse mental health outcomes.
This umbrella review found severe mental health problems among individuals and populations who have undergone quarantine and isolation in different contexts. This evidence necessitates multipronged interventions including policy measures for strengthening mental health services globally and promoting psychosocial wellbeing among high-risk populations.
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COVID-19: Special Article
Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Korea
Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020007.   Published online February 9, 2020
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  • 139 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.
Korean summary
2020년 1월 20일 한국의 신종코로나바이러스 감염자가 확진된 이후 약 20일만에 28명이 확진되었다. 확진자중 지표환자가 16명(57.2%), 1세대환자 9명(32.1%), 2세대환자가 3명(10.7%)이다. 지표환자 16명중 15명은 1월 19일-24일에, 1명은 1월 31일에 국내에 입국하였다. 환자들의 잠복기는 평균 3.9일 (중위값 3일), 감염재생산수(R)는 0.48로 추정되었다. 확진자 중 3명은 증상이 없는 상태에서 확진이 되었다. 향후 새로운 정보가 나오면 역학 지표들이 수정될 것이다.
Key Message


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MERS-Original Article
Epidemiologic features of the first MERS outbreak in Korea: focus on Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital
Kyung Min Kim, Moran Ki, Sung-il Cho, Minki Sung, Jin Kwan Hong, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jong-Hun Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Changhwan Lee, Keon-Joo Lee, Yong-Shik Park, Seung Woo Kim, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015041.   Published online September 17, 2015
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
This study investigated the epidemiologic features of the confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital, where the outbreak first began, in order to identify lessons relevant for the prevention and control of future outbreaks.
The patients’ clinical symptoms and test results were collected from their medical records. The caregivers of patients were identified by phone calls.
After patient zero (case #1) was admitted to Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital (May 15-May 17), an outbreak occurred, with 36 cases between May 18 and June 4, 2015. Six patients died (fatality rate, 16.7%). Twenty-six cases occurred in the first-generation, and 10 in the second-generation. The median incubation period was five days, while the median period from symptom onset to death was 12.5 days. While the total attack rate was 3.9%, the attack rate among inpatients was 7.6%, and the inpatients on the eighth floor, where patient zero was hospitalized, had an 18.6% attack rate. In contrast, caregivers and medical staff showed attack rates of 3.3% and 1.1%, respectively.
The attack rates were higher than those of the previous outbreaks in other countries. The outbreak spread beyond Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital when four of the patients were moved to other hospitals without appropriate quarantine. The best method of preventing future outbreaks is to overcome the vulnerabilities observed in this outbreak, such as ward crowding, patient migration without appropriate data sharing, and the lack of an initial broad quarantine.
Korean summary
평택성모병원에서는 총 36명의 메르스 환자가 발생하여 이중 6명이 사망하였다. 또한 평택성모병원 유행의 발병률은 기존에 알려진 것보다 높았다. 한국의 메르스 유행이 시작된 평택성모병원에서 나타난 초기 방역 부족, 적절한 정보공유 없이 환자들이 병원간에 이동하는 것, 혼잡한 병동 문제 등의 감염병 전파 취약점을 극복하는 것이 향후 새로운 감염병 유행을 막을 수 있는 최선의 방법이 될 것이다.
Key Message


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Original Articles
Fever screening and detection of febrile arrivals at an international airport in Korea: association among self-reported fever, infrared thermal camera scanning, and tympanic temperature
Kyung Sook Cho, Jangho Yoon
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014004.   Published online May 30, 2014
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  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The purpose of this research was to measure fever prevalence and the effectiveness of a fever screening procedure in detecting febrile arrivals at an international airport in Korea.
Data were retrieved from arrivals’ health declaration forms and questionnaires for febrile arrivals at an international airport collected by a national quarantine station during the year 2012. Self-reported health declaration forms were returned by 355,887 arrivals (61% of the total arrivals). Of these, 608 symptomatic arrivals (0.2%) including 6 febrile arrivals were analyzed.
Fever prevalence at an international airport in Korea was 0.002%. Self-reported fever was significantly positively associated with tympanic temperature (p<0.001). The difference between the thermal camera temperature (36.83°C) and tympanic (or ear) temperature (38.14°C) was not statistically significant.
The findings imply that a procedure for mass detection of fever such as self-reported questionnaires and thermal camera scanning may serve as an effective tool for detecting febrile arrivals at quarantine stations. Future research can benefit from looking at the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the entry screening system.
Korean summary
2003년 전 세계적인 SARS 대 유행 이후, 우리나라는 증상을 자가보고 하도록 하는 검역질문서, 열감지 카메라를 통한 체온 측정, 고막체온 측정 등과 같은 검역절차들이 상호 유기적으로 작용할 수 있도록 검역체계를 강화해 왔다. 그러나 이러한 검역절차들이 얼마나 효과적으로 작용하고 있는지, 그리고 이를 통해 실제로 발열환자가 얼마나 발견되고 있는지에 대한 연구는 전무하였다. 그러한 점에서 본 연구는 이러한 연구 질문에 대한 우리나라 최초의 시도로서, 검역 행정뿐만 아니라 향후 보다 발전된 후속 연구를 위한 기초자료로도 활용될 수 있을 것이다.
Key Message


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Epidemiological Characteristics of Imported Influenza A (H1N1) Cases during the 2009 Pandemic in Korea
Jun Kil Choi, Sang Won Lee, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2012;34:e2012009.   Published online December 31, 2012
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Quarantine measure for prevention of epidemic disease and further evaluations of their efficiency are possible only by elaborating analyses of imported cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze descriptive epidemiological characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) cases imported to Korea.


We collected two sets of data. The first set, comprised daily reported cases of H1N1 obtained from local cities in accordance with government policy about mandatory reporting of all H1N1 cases during May 1 to August 19, 2009. The second set, including 372 confirmed imported H1N1 cases, identified from 13 National Quarantine Stations in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from May 24 to December 31, 2009. However, given the lack of information on the nature of the imported H1N1 cases from the two data sets during the over lapping period from May 24 to August 19, we express the number of imported cases as a range for this period.


We estimated that the number of imported H1N1 cases from May 1 to August 19, 2009, was between 1,098 and 1,291 and the total number of cases was 2,409 to 2,580. We found the number of imported cases was beginning to diminish as of August. A analysis of the second data set showed that the distribution of sex was similar (males 50.7%, females 49.3%) and the age distribution from 20 to 59 was 61.5% and that of 60 and over was 0.8% of the 372 cases. We identified 25 countries where people infected with H1N1 traveled and 67.5% were in Asia. But the proportion of cases (/1,000) by region shows Oceania (0.199), South America (0.118), Southeast Asia (0.071), North America (0.049), Europe (0.035), and Northeast Asia (0.016) in that order. The order of H1N1 peaking was the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics, and the Nothern Hemisphere.


This study provided information that could make possible the evaluation of the government quarantine measure for stopping imported disease from causing community-acquired spread in the future.

Korean summary
Key Message


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