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Factors Associated with a Low-sodium Diet: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Won Joon Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Jaelim Cho, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013005.   Published online June 20, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2013005
  • 17,504 View
  • 120 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ≤2,000 mg/day based on 24-hour recalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ≥1 time/day, respectively.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSIONS</title><p>Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.</p></sec>
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison between 24-hour diet recall and 24-hour urine collection for estimating sodium and potassium intakes and their ratio among Korean adults
    Taisun Hyun, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Heekyong Ro, Young-Hee Han, Yeon-Kyung Lee
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2023; 17(2): 284.     CrossRef
  • Association between Eating Habits and Sodium Intake among Chinese University Students
    Minchan Wu, Yue Xi, Jiaqi Huo, Caihong Xiang, Cuiting Yong, Jiajing Liang, Hanshuang Zou, Yunfeng Pan, Qingqing Xie, Qian Lin
    Nutrients.2023; 15(7): 1570.     CrossRef
  • Sodium and Potassium Urinary Excretion Among Malaysian Adults Claiming to Practice Salt-control: Findings from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS)
    Munawara Pardi, Syafinaz Mohd Sallehuddin, Lalitha Palaniveloo, Norazizah Wong Ibrahim
    Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences.2022; 18(6): 5.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China
    Fen Cai, Wen-Ya Dong, Jia-Xin Jiang, Xiao-Li Chen, Yue Wang, Chang-Yu Deng, Qing-Ying Zhang
    Public Health Nutrition.2021; 24(2): 290.     CrossRef
  • Mood and Metabolic Health Status of Elderly Osteoporotic Patients in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Nationally Representative Sample
    Hyen Chul Jo, Gu-Hee Jung, Seong-Ho Ok, Ji Eun Park, Jong Chul Baek
    Healthcare.2021; 9(1): 77.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of prehypertension and its risk factors in midlife and late life: Indonesian family life survey 2014–2015
    Aida Lydia, Siti Setiati, Czeresna Heriawan Soejono, Rahmi Istanti, Jessica Marsigit, Muhammad Khifzhon Azwar
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Regional disparities in healthy eating and nutritional status in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017
    Jounghee Lee, Jaesin Sa
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2020; 14(6): 679.     CrossRef
  • Inverse association of improved adherence to dietary guidelines with metabolic syndrome: the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management program
    Dongwoo Ham, YoungYun Cho, Mi-Suk Park, Yun-Sug Park, Sun-Young Kim, Hye-Min Seol, Yoo Mi Park, Sunok Woo, Hyojee Joung, Do-Sun Lim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2020; 14(6): 621.     CrossRef
  • Association between family dinner and BMI in adults: data from the 2013 to 2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Woongchan Rah, Jaewon So, Eun-Cheol Park, Sang Ah Lee, Sung-In Jang
    Public Health Nutrition.2019; 22(4): 681.     CrossRef
  • Global Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guidelines
    Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong Woo Jeon, Sung Taik Heo
    Circulation.2018; 138(21): 2312.     CrossRef
  • Sodium excretion and health-related quality of life: the results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011
    Hye Min Choi, Kyu-Beck Lee, Hyang Kim, Young Youl Hyun
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2018; 72(11): 1490.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Blood Pressure and Prevalence of Hypertension in Korean Adults Based on the 1998–2014 KNHANES
    Tae-Jong Kim, Jae-woo Lee, Hee-Taik Kang, Myeong-Chan Cho, Hyoung-Ji Lim, Jin-Young Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Yong-Jae Lee, Sang-Hyun Lee, John A. Linton, Yeseul Kim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2018; 59(3): 356.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Determinants of Sodium Intake in Adult Populations of High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
    American Journal of Public Health.2017; 107(4): e1.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion
    Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
    Medicine.2016; 95(9): e2864.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of dietary intake in Korean adults according to energy intake from eating-out: Based on 2013~2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yun-Jung Bae
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2016; 49(6): 482.     CrossRef
  • The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES): current status and challenges
    Yuna Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2014; 36: e2014002.     CrossRef
Evaluation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Hamadan, Iran from 2002 to 2009
Jalal Poorolajal, Shadi Ghasemi, Leila Nezamabadi Farahani, Atefeh Sadat Hosseini, Seyyed Jalal Bathaei, Ali Zahiri
Epidemiol Health. 2011;33:e2011011.   Published online November 16, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2011011
  • 15,818 View
  • 106 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>To achieve a polio-free certification in Iran, a nationwide active surveillance program for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was set up following World Health Organization guidelines. This article describes the results of an eight-year surveillance of AFP in Hamadan, in the west of Iran.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>A standard set of minimum core variables were collected. All cases of non-polio AFP in children aged <15 years old were reported. Two stool specimens were collected within 14 days of the onset of paralysis.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>During the eight-year survey, 88 AFP cases aged <15 years old were reported. About 40% (35/88) of cases were aged ≤5 years, 56% (49/88) were boys, 19 (21.6%) had fever at the onset of paralysis, 74 (84.0%) had complete paralysis within four days of onset, and 22 (24.7%) had asymmetric paralysis. More than one AFP case was detected per 100,000 children aged <15 years old in all years. The risk of AFP in patients aged <5 years old was almost double that of older patients. Guillain-Barré Syndrome was the major leading cause of AFP (66/88). Adequate stool specimens were collected from 85% of AFP patients. All stool specimens were tested virologically, but no wild polioviruses were detected.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>The active surveillance of non-polio AFP was efficient over the last eight years and exceeded 1.0 case per 100,000 children aged <15 years old. Nonetheless, there was a decreasing trend in the detection of AFP cases during the last two years and should be the focus of the policymakers' special attention, although AFP cases were still above the target level.</p></sec>
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Polio Vaccination Status of Non-polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in the Far North Region of Cameroon: A Five-Year Retrospective Study From 2015 to 2019
    Blaise Wakam Nkontchou, Etienne Guenou, Collins Buh Nkum, Celine Mairousgou Tchida, Alphonse Marie Nono, Jerome Ateudjieu
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Met and Unmet Care Needs in Older Adults without Mental Disorders Using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Parvin Cheraghi, Ahmad Delbari, Zahra Cheraghi, Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini, Nasibeh Zanjari
    Journal of Research in Health Sciences.2021; 21(4): e00530.     CrossRef
  • The Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance System in Yemen, 2010-2015: Descriptive Study Based on Secondary Data Analysis
    Khaled Abdullah Almoayed, Ali Bin Break, Mutahar Al-Qassimi, Ali Assabri, Yousef Khader
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2019; 5(4): e14413.     CrossRef
  • Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012–2015
    Laura Pellegrinelli, Laura Bubba, Valeria Primache, Elena Pariani, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Stefano Fiore, Sandro Binda
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2017; 13(2): 332.     CrossRef
  • Eradication of Polio in the World; Iran is at Risk for Reemerging of Polio: A Review of the Literature
    Seyed Mansour Razavi, Masoud Mardani, Payman Salamati
    Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An epidemiological analysis of acute flaccid paralysis in Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran, from 2006 to 2010
    Ali Akbar Momen, Abdolhussein Shakurnia
    Epidemiology and Health.2016; 38: e2016030.     CrossRef
  • Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system
    Laura Pellegrinelli, Valeria Primache, Lucia Fiore, Concetta Amato, Stefano Fiore, Laura Bubba, Elena Pariani, Antonella Amendola, Maria Barbi, Sandro Binda
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2015; 11(1): 277.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and enterovirus findings associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the republic of Korea during the recent decade
    HyeJin Kim, Byounghak Kang, Seoyeon Hwang, Sang Won Lee, Doo-Sung Cheon, Kisang Kim, Yong-Seok Jeong, Ji-Yeon Hyeon
    Journal of Medical Virology.2014; 86(9): 1584.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Reported by the Surveillance System and Verified by WHO Officer in Akwa Ibom State-Nigeria, 2006-2012
    Bassey Enya Bassey, Vaz Gama Rui, Alex Ntale Gasasira, Mkanda Pascal, Goitom Weldegbriel, Ticha Johnson Mulum, Sylvester T. Maleghemi, Emem Abasi Bassey
    Health.2014; 06(19): 2602.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health