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Risk of chronic periodontitis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023032.   Published online March 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023032
  • 3,183 View
  • 135 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of chronic periodontitis is more likely among patients who have been newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) through an analysis of representative data from the general population.
METHODS
A nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted using patient records from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. For the period 2004-2019, patient data were categorized into 2 groups: a diagnosis of OSA (747 subjects) and no diagnosis of OSA (1,494 subjects). Subsequently, 1:2 propensity score matching was performed to ensure the homogeneity of the 2 groups. To analyze the risk of incident chronic periodontitis, a Cox proportional-hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was significantly lower in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (p for log-rank test=0.001). The crude HR for the association between OSA and chronic periodontitis was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.43). The multivariable-adjusted HR was calculated at 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.42).
CONCLUSIONS
This study confirmed a relationship between OSA and chronic periodontitis. Therefore, OSA patients require oral care to prevent the progression of chronic periodontitis from mild to severe.
Summary
Korean summary
폐쇄성수면무호흡증 환자의 만성치주염 발생위험 차이를 분석한 결과, 폐쇄성수면무호흡증 그룹에서 만성치주염의 발생위험이 높았다. 따라서 폐쇄성수면무호흡증 환자의 만성치주염 초기치료 및 질환의 진행이 되지 않도록 전문가의 효과적인 구강관리가 필요할 것이다.
Key Message
As a result of analyzing the difference in the risk of chronic periodontitis among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, the risk of chronic periodontitis was higher in the obstructive sleep apnea group. Therefore, effective oral care by experts will be necessary to prevent the initial treatment of chronic periodontitis and progression of the disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
Risk of dementia according to the severity of chronic periodontitis in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
Seon-Rye Kim, Minkook Son, Yu-Rin Kim, Hyun-Kyung Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022077.   Published online September 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022077
  • 6,937 View
  • 280 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the risk of dementia in older adults with chronic periodontitis according to the severity of periodontitis.
METHODS
Data on patients with chronic periodontitis were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort database from 2002 to 2014. Among 52,728 subjects eligible for inclusion, 11,953 subjects had newly diagnosed mild chronic periodontitis (MCP), and 40,775 subjects had newly diagnosed severe chronic periodontitis (SCP). Two 1:1 propensity score matched cohorts were created with 8,624 patients each in the MCP and SCP groups. To analyze the risk of dementia, a Cox proportional-hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the disease-free probability was significantly lower in the SCP group than in the MCP group (p for log-rank=0.001). In the multivariable-adjusted model, the HR for the occurrence of dementia in the SCP group compared to the MCP group was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27; p=0.009). A subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between dementia and the severity of periodontitis, especially in subjects who were male, aged ≥70 years, and had comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS
Reducing the severity of chronic periodontitis can help to reduce the risk of dementia. Therefore, it is necessary to aggressively conduct early dementia-prevention programs for males under the age of 70 that include dental health to prevent the progression of periodontitis from mild to severe.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 만성치주질환을 가진 노인의 만성치주질환 중등도에 따른 치매 발생위험 차이를 분석하였다. 그 결과, 만성치주질환 중등도가 높은 그룹에서 만성치주질환 중등도가 낮은 그룹에 비해 치매 발생위험이 높았으며, 특히, 남성과 70세 이상 그룹에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 따라서 70세 이하 남성 노인을 대상으로 만성치주질환이 진행되지 않도록 효과적인 구강관리가 필요할 것이다.
Key Message
In this study, we confirmed that the severity of chronic periodontitis is related to the risk of dementia, so efforts for effective oral care will be needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • With Teeth, Broken, or Fixed: The Challenges of Linking Periodontitis, Neuroepidemiology, and Biomarkers of Disease
    James M. Noble, Panos N. Papapanou
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2023; 93(3): 991.     CrossRef
  • Periodontal Pathogens and Their Links to Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
    David Visentin, Ivana Gobin, Željka Maglica
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(7): 1832.     CrossRef
  • Association between statin compliance and risk of dementia among patients with chronic periodontitis
    Yu‐Rin Kim, Minkook Son, Seon‐Rye Kim
    Oral Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Impact of water fluoridation on dental caries decline across racial and income subgroups of Brazilian adolescents
Rafael Aiello Bomfim, Paulo Frazão
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022007.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022007
  • 8,002 View
  • 432 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of community water fluoridation (CWF) on differences in dental caries decline across racial and socioeconomic subgroups of Brazilian adolescents.
METHODS
Two nationwide Brazilian population-based oral health surveys were used (Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2003 and 2010). In total, 7,198 adolescents from 15 years to 19 years old living in 50 cities investigated in both surveys were included. The mean numbers of untreated decayed teeth (DT) according to racial (Whites vs. Browns/Blacks) and socioeconomic subgroups (at or above the minimum wage per capita vs. under) were analysed. Difference-in-differences negative binomial regressions were adjusted by schooling, age, and sex. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth and DT prevalence, calculated as a categorical variable, were used in sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS
The adjusted difference of reduction in DT was similar across socioeconomic subgroups (β=-0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.45 to 0.35) and favoured, but not to a significant degree, Whites (β=-0.34; 95% CI, -0.74 to 0.04) compared to Brown/Blacks in fluoridated areas. In non-fluoridated areas, significant differences were observed in the mean number of DT, favouring the higher socioeconomic subgroup (β=-0.26; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01) and Whites (β=-0.40; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.11) in relation to their counterparts. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings.
CONCLUSIONS
The similar reduction in DT across income subgroups suggests that CWF has had a beneficial effect on tackling income inequalities in dental caries within a 7-year timeframe.
Summary
Key Message
Community Water Fluoridation tackled income and racial inequalities in dental caries in adolescents aged 15-19 years between 2003 and 2010 in Brazil.
Estimation and change of edentulism among the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2018
Na-Hyeon Yu, Ah Ra Shin, Song Vogue Ahn, Keun-Bae Song, Youn-Hee Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021020.   Published online April 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021020
  • 10,848 View
  • 302 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the prevalence of edentulism according to the socio-demographic variables of Korean adults between 2007 and 2018 and to analyze the trends.
METHODS
This study was conducted using raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2018. Edentulism was defined as the absence of upper and lower teeth or the retained root of the missing teeth. To obtain the prevalence of edentulism, complex sample frequency analysis and regression analysis were performed according to the socio-demographic variables to represent the national population. The Korean population structure in 2005 was exploited as a standard population to calculate age-standardized edentulism.
RESULTS
The prevalence of edentulism in 2016-2018 was 9.7% in the Korean elderly, and the change of age-standardized edentulism steadily declined over time from 2007, 12.8%. In particular, it decreased by approximately 20% in the period between 2016 and 2018 compared to that in 2007 for those in their 80s. The trend of the prevalence according to gender decreased significantly in women. According to the level of education, the greatest decrease was seen in the group with the lowest education, although the prevalence itself was higher than that seen in those who were more educated.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of edentulism among the older Korean population has decreased over time. However, the concern is on those with lower education and men as these groups are still at higher risk for edentulism.
Summary
Korean summary
치아상실은 구강건강의 지표로써 현재 국외에서는 무치악 유병률 추이 파악뿐만 아니라 다국 간의 비교가 이루어지고 있지만 아시아의 주요국가 중 하나인 한국의 무치악 유병률 추이에 대해서는 아직 연구되지 않았다. 연구 결과, 2016-2018년 한국 노인의 무치악 유병률은 9.72%였으며, 연령표준화된 무치악 유병률의 변화는 2007 년 12.8 %에서 꾸준히 감소했다. 결론적으로 무치악으로 어려움을 겪을 수 있는 교육수준이 낮은 노인과 남성에 대해선 지속적인 관심이 필요하다.
Key Message
Tooth loss is an indicator of oral health. At present, not only the trend of edentulous prevalence is being identified abroad, but also multi-country comparisons are being made, but the trend of edentulous prevalence in Korea, one of the major Asian countries, has not been studied. As a result of the study, the prevalence of edentulous in Korea in 2016-2018 was 9.72%, and the change in the age-standardized edentulous prevalence steadily decreased from 12.8% in 2007. In conclusion, continuous attention is needed for the elderly and men with low educational standards who may suffer from edentulous.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of the oral health status and costs of the provision of dental care in ten high-income countries
    Rüdiger Saekel
    Journal of Dental Health, Oral Disorders & Therapy.2024; 15(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Trend in the Incidence of Severe Partial Edentulism among Adults Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service Claim Data, 2014–2018
    Hyeonjeong Go, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Jeonghoon Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2024; 65(4): 234.     CrossRef
  • A preclinical study comparing single- and double-root 3D-printed Ti–6Al–4V implants
    Inna Chung, Jungwon Lee, Ling Li, Yang-Jo Seol, Yong-Moo Lee, Ki-Tae Koo
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Oral health status and behavior in elderly Koreans with periodontal disease
    Sae‐Rom Lee, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu, So Yeong Kim
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry.2022; 82(4): 378.     CrossRef
  • High exposure to phthalates is associated with HbA1c worsening in type 2 diabetes subjects with and without edentulism: a prospective pilot study
    Alessandro Mengozzi, Fabrizia Carli, Samantha Pezzica, Edoardo Biancalana, Amalia Gastaldelli, Anna Solini
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence of edentulism among older adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 2013-2018
    Hyeonjeong Go, Eun-Kyong Kim, Hoi-In Jung, Song Vogue Ahn, Hosung Shin, Atsuo Amano, Youn-Hee Choi
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022091.     CrossRef
Associations between chronic conditions and oral health services utilization in older Peruvian adults: a pooled analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 2015-2017
Diego Azañedo, Diego Chambergo-Michilot, Akram Hernández-Vásquez
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020023.   Published online April 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020023
  • 12,620 View
  • 268 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the associations between chronic conditions (CCs) and oral health services utilization (OHSU) within the previous 6 months in older Peruvian adults (defined as those 60 years of age or more according to Peruvian law).
METHODS
An analytical cross-sectional study was performed based on the 2015-2017 Peruvian Demographic and Family Health Survey. Pooled data from 13,699 older adults were analyzed. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between OHSU (dependent variable) and CCs (independent variables). Tobacco consumption, obesity, educational level, age, sex, welfare quintile, area of residence, having health insurance, and natural region of residence were included as covariates in the analysis.
RESULTS
The frequency of OHSU in older adults was 18.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.8 to 19.3). The highest percentage point (%p) differences with regards to OHSU were found between the extreme categories of educational level (higher education vs. none or elementary school: +24.8%p) and welfare quintile (richest vs. poorest: +24.0%p). In the crude model, OHSU was associated with diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.69), but this association disappeared after adjustment for covariates. Meanwhile, depression decreased the likelihood of OHSU (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.95) in the adjusted model.
CONCLUSIONS
The frequency of OHSU was low in older Peruvian adults. Regarding CCs, we found that depression independently decreased the likelihood of OHSU in the adjusted model. Our results may be useful for the development of policies aimed at achieving greater OHSU in older adults with CCs, especially in those with depression.
Summary
Correlation between depressive symptoms and subjective mastication ability and ability to pronunciation among Korean elderly
Min Sun Park, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016035.   Published online July 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016035
  • 16,289 View
  • 233 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors.
METHODS
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis.
RESULTS
Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20). Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67).
CONCLUSIONS
Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial.
Summary
Korean summary
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D)을 번역하여 조사된 2009년 지역사회건강조사 원시자료를 이용하여 전국 노인의 구강 보건 관리와 우울증상 관리를 중재하는 프로그램의 개발 및 접근에 있어 기초 자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 한국 노인의 주관적 구강저작능력과 발음능력상태와 우울증상은 인구 사회학적 특성, 건강수준 및 건강행태 관련 요인에 유의한 차이가 있었으며, 이에 따른 체계적이고 지속할 수 있는 중재프로그램의 기획 및 적용이 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association Between Changes in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and Depressive Symptoms in the Korean Elderly Population
    Kyoung Eun Park, Hooyeon Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Sukil Kim
    International Journal of Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association and mediators between the impact of oral health‐related quality of life and depression
    Tianjiao Xin, Fangfang Hu, Lingzhong Xu, Fanlei Kong, Haifeng Yang, Lei Li, Afei Qin, Binghong Bao, Chiqi Chen, Jing Lan
    Oral Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Anesthesia/Euthanasia Method Used for Brain Collection on GSK3β Activation in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
    Suryun Jung, Sooyeun Lee
    Drug Targets and Therapeutics.2022; 1(1): 45.     CrossRef
  • Oral health‐related quality of life is associated with the prevalence and development of depressive symptoms in older Japanese individuals: The Ohasama Study
    Takashi Ohi, Takahisa Murakami, Takamasa Komiyama, Yoshitada Miyoshi, Kosei Endo, Takako Hiratsuka, Michihiro Satoh, Kei Asayama, Ryusuke Inoue, Masahiro Kikuya, Hirohito Metoki, Atsushi Hozawa, Yutaka Imai, Makoto Watanabe, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Yoshinori Ha
    Gerodontology.2022; 39(2): 204.     CrossRef
  • Association between subjective oral dysfunction and locomotive syndrome in community-dwelling older adults
    Misa Nakamura, Masakazu Imaoka, Hidetoshi Nakao, Mitsumasa Hida, Fumie Tazaki, Ryota Imai, Hirotoshi Utsunomiya, Hiroshi Hashizume
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Oral symptoms significantly higher among long-term khat (Catha edulis) users in Ethiopia
Ayalew Astatkie, Meaza Demissie, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015009.   Published online February 19, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015009
  • 19,382 View
  • 211 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Associations between khat (Catha edulis) chewing and different adverse oral-dental health conditions have been reported, yet evidence is still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between long-term regular khat chewing and self-reported oral symptoms.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,255 university students in southern Ethiopia. Data on khat chewing status, a range of oral symptoms and other pertinent variables were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The association between long-term regular khat chewing and oral symptom count was investigated using negative binomial regression.
RESULTS
The mean oral symptom count among long-term regular khat chewers was 1.75 (standard deviation [SD], 2.18; standard error [SE], 0.31), whereas that among those who were not long-term regular khat chewers was 1.18 (SD, 1.68; SE, 0.10). After adjustment for other variables, long-term regular khat chewers had approximately 50% more oral symptoms than those who were not long-term chewers did (adjusted count ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.10).
CONCLUSIONS
Long-term khat chewing negatively affects the oral health of young university students.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Awareness and practice of oral hygiene and its relation to socio-demographic factors among patients attending general OPD
    Tusneem Haider, Zeeshan Yousaf, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Saman Fatima
    Pakistan BioMedical Journal.2022; 5(1): 311.     CrossRef
  • Effect of finishing protocols and staining solutions on color stability of dental resin composites
    Chamunorwa Marufu, Bernina K. Kisumbi, Olivia A. Osiro, Fred O. Otieno
    Clinical and Experimental Dental Research.2022; 8(2): 561.     CrossRef
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    Tusneem Haider, Zeeshan Yousaf, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Saman Fatima
    Pakistan BioMedical Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determinants of dental caries among adolescent patients attending Hospitals in West Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia: A case-control study
    Tsega Tola Guracho, Emiru Merdassa Atomssa, Obsa Amante Megersa, Tadesse Tolossa, Zhaoqiang Zhang
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(12): e0260427.     CrossRef
  • Social Habits and Other Risk Factors that Cause Tooth Loss: An Associative Study Conducted in Taiz Governorate, Yemen
    Fawzia I Shaabi, Nashwan A Noman, Adel A Aladimi, Baleegh A Alkadasi, Mohammed A Alraawi, Gassan M Al-Iryani, Asaad Khalid
    The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice.2019; 20(4): 428.     CrossRef
  • Khat (Catha edulis) and its oral health effects: An updated review
    Sadeq A. Al‐Maweri, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Abdulaziz Samran
    Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Khat and synthetic cathinones: emerging drugs of abuse with dental implications
    Worku Abebe
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Or.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Oral Lesions Induced by Chronic Khat Use Consist Essentially of Thickened Hyperkeratinized Epithelium
    Ochiba Mohammed Lukandu, Lionel Sang Koech, Paul Ngugi Kiarie
    International Journal of Dentistry.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health