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Original Article
Modeling the relationship between malaria prevalence and insecticide-treated bed net coverage in Nigeria using a Bayesian spatial generalized linear mixed model with a Leroux prior
Oluyemi A. Okunlola, Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi, Adewale F. Lukman
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021041.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021041
  • 10,132 View
  • 317 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate malaria transmission in relation to insecticide-treated net (ITN) coverage in Nigeria.
METHODS
We used an exploratory analysis approach to evaluate variation in malaria transmission in relation to ITN distribution in 1,325 Demographic and Health Survey clusters in Nigeria. A Bayesian spatial generalized linear mixed model with a Leroux conditional autoregressive prior for the random effects was used to model the spatial and contextual variation in malaria prevalence and ITN distribution after adjusting for environmental variables.
RESULTS
Spatial smoothed maps showed the nationwide distribution of malaria and ITN. The distribution of ITN varied significantly across the 6 geopolitical zones (p<0.05). The North-East had the least ITN distribution (0.196±0.071), while ITN distribution was highest in the South-South (0.309±0.075). ITN coverage was also higher in rural areas (0.281±0.074) than in urban areas (0.240±0.096, p<0.05). The Bayesian hierarchical regression results showed a non-significant negative relationship between malaria prevalence and ITN coverage, but a significant spatial structured random effect and unstructured random effect. The correlates of malaria transmission included rainfall, maximum temperature, and proximity to water.
CONCLUSIONS
Reduction in malaria transmission was not significantly related to ITN coverage, although much could be achieved in attempts to curtail malaria transmission through enhanced ITN coverage. A multifaceted and integrated approach to malaria control is strongly advocated.
Summary
Key Message
Scaling up equity in ITN distribution and coverage, awareness and knowledge on ITN utilization are important integrated approaches to mitigate malaria transmission in Nigeria.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Vegetation index and livestock practices as predictors of malaria transmission in Nigeria
    Oluyemi Okunlola, Segun Oloja, Ayooluwade Ebiwonjumi, Oyetunde Oyeyemi
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematic Review of Areal Units and Adjacency Used in Bayesian Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Conditional Autoregressive Models in Health Research
    Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema, Susannah Ahern, Arul Earnest
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(13): 6277.     CrossRef
  • Malaria transmission in Africa: Its relationship with yellow fever and measles
    Oluyemi A. Okunlola, Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi, Luzia Helena Carvalho
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(5): e0268080.     CrossRef
  • Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling and mapping of malaria and anaemia among children between 0 and 59 months in Nigeria
    Jecinta U. Ibeji, Henry Mwambi, Abdul-Karim Iddrisu
    Malaria Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review
Idris Nasir Abdullahi, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Peter Elisha Ghamba, Pius Omoruyi Omosigho, Zakariyya Muhammad Bello, Bamidele Soji Oderinde, Samuel Ayobami Fasogbon, Lawal Olayemi, Isa Muhammad Daneji, Muhammad Hamis Musa, Justin Onyebuchi Nwofe, Nkechi Blessing Onukegbe, Chukwudi Crescent Okume, Sanusi Musa, Abubakar Muhammad Gwarzo, Odunayo Oyetola Rahmat Ajagbe
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020071.   Published online November 26, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071
  • 12,327 View
  • 234 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.
METHODS
A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.
RESULTS
Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of West Nile Virus Disease in Humans and Horses: Exploiting Similarities for Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance
    Erika R. Schwarz, Maureen T. Long
    Viruses.2023; 15(6): 1230.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies Directed against Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses and Associated Risk Factors in Madagascar, 2011 to 2013
    Anaïs Broban, Marie-Marie Olive, Michael Luciano Tantely, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Christophe Rogier, Jean-Michel Heraud, Soa Fy Andriamandimby
    Viruses.2023; 15(8): 1707.     CrossRef
  • Non-traumatic coma in young children in Benin: are viral and bacterial infections gaining ground on cerebral malaria?
    Josselin Brisset, Karl Angendu Baki, Laurence Watier, Elisée Kinkpé, Justine Bailly, Linda Ayédadjou, Maroufou Jules Alao, Ida Dossou-Dagba, Gwladys I. Bertin, Michel Cot, Farid Boumédiène, Daniel Ajzenberg, Agnès Aubouy, Sandrine Houzé, Jean-François Fau
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Scoping Review of West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Studies among African Equids
    Olaolu T. Olufemi, Marta Barba, Janet M. Daly
    Pathogens.2021; 10(7): 899.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health