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Original Articles
Interaction between vitamin E intake and a COMT gene variant on colorectal cancer risk among Korean adults: a case-control study
Shinyoung Jun, Madhawa Gunathilake, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023100.   Published online November 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023100
  • 2,600 View
  • 119 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Previous human trials have not supported the anticarcinogenic effect of vitamin E despite biological plausibility and considerable epidemiological evidence. A possible explanation for this inconsistency is the interactive effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and supplemental vitamin E on cancer. We examined whether a COMT gene variant modulates the effect of dietary vitamin E intake on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
METHODS
In this case-control study of Korean adults (975 cases and 975 age- and sex-matched controls), dietary vitamin E density (mg/1,000 kcal) was measured using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs740603 (A>G) was genotyped, and CRC was verified histologically. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models with adjustments for potential confounders.
RESULTS
Higher vitamin E density was associated with a lower risk of CRC (highest vs. lowest quartiles: OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.96; p-for-trend=0.002). When stratified by COMT SNP rs740603 genotype, the inverse association between vitamin E density and CRC risk was confined to those with at least 1 A allele (≥median vs. <median: OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.78). The interaction between rs740603 and vitamin E density was significant (p-for-interaction=0.020). No direct association was observed between COMT SNP rs740603 and CRC risk (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.41).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings support a role for a genetic polymorphism in COMT in modifying the association between dietary vitamin E intake and CRC.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국립암센터에서 수집한 대장암 환자-대조군 자료를 활용하여, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 유전자의 단일염기다형성(SNP)에 따라 비타민 E 섭취와 대장암 위험 간의 연관성이 달라지는지 파악하고자 하였다. 분석 결과, COMT SNP rs740603의 유전자형에 따라 식이를 통한 비타민 E 섭취 밀도와 대장암 위험 간의 연관성이 다르게 나타나 COMT 유전자와 비타민 E 섭취 간의 상호작용이 대장암 발생 위험에 영향을 미칠 가능성이 있음을 제시하였다.
Key Message
In this case-control study of Korean adults, we examined whether a polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene modulates the effect of dietary vitamin E intake on colorectal cancer risk. Our results suggest that the inverse association between vitamin E density and colorectal cancer risk is confined to carriers of the COMT rs740603 A allele. The findings of our study support the interactive effect of the COMT gene and vitamin E intake on colorectal cancer risk.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Role of Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidants in Preventing Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review
    Mohammed Ajebli, Christopher R Meretsky, Mourad Akdad, Ayoub Amssayef, Morad Hebi
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association between PM2.5 exposure and risk of Parkinson’s disease in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan: a nested case-control study
Ci-Wen Luo, Yu-Hsiang Kuan, Wen-Ying Chen, Chun-Jung Chen, Frank Cheau-Feng Lin, Stella Chin-Shaw Tsai
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023094.   Published online October 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023094
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This cohort study investigated the correlation between Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk under particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) exposure.
METHODS
Data from the National Health Research Institutes of Taiwan were used in this study. The Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan established an air quality monitoring network for monitoring Taiwan’s general air quality. COPD was indicated by at least 3 outpatient records and 1 hospitalization for COPD. After the implementation of age, sex, and endpoint matching at a 1:4 ratio, 137 patients and 548 patients were included in the case group and control group, respectively. Based on the 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) standards, monthly air particle concentration data were classified into the following 4 groups in analyses of exposure–response relationships: normal level, and 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the WHO level ([concentration ≥2]×25 μg/m<sup>3</sup>×number of exposure months).
RESULTS
A multivariate logistic regression revealed that the 1.0 and 1.5 WHO level groups did not significantly differ from the normal level group, but the 2.0 WHO level did (odds ratio, 4.091; 95% confidence interval, 1.180 to 14.188; p=0.038).
CONCLUSIONS
Elevated PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations were significantly correlated with an increased risk of PD among patients with COPD. Furthermore, exposure to high PM<sub>2.5</sub> levels can further increase the risk of PD.
Summary
Key Message
This nested case-control study, utilizing data from Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes and after meticulous matching, found that higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with those exposed to PM2.5 levels at 2 times the WHO standards having a 4 times higher odds of Parkinson's disease compared to those exposed to normal levels, indicating that air pollution may exacerbate neurological disease risk in those with existing respiratory conditions.
Risk of lymphadenopathy from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Korea: a self-controlled case series analysis
Mi-Sook Kim, Bongyoung Kim, Jeong Pil Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jung Yeon Heo, Jun Yong Choi, Joongyub Lee, Sang Il Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023090.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023090
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess the risk of lymphadenopathy following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination.
METHODS
A self-controlled case series design was used to determine whether the risk of lymphadenopathy was higher in the 1-day to 42-day risk interval after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination compared to the control period. In addition, subgroup analyses were conducted according to baseline characteristics, time since vaccination, and sensitivity analyses adjusted for the length of the risk interval.
RESULTS
The risk of developing lymphadenopathy in the risk interval (1-42 days) after COVID-19 vaccination compared to the control period was significantly increased, with a relative incidence (RI) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.18) when the first, second, and third doses were combined. The RI was greater on the day of vaccination (1.47; 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.50). In subgroup analyses by baseline characteristics, a significantly increased risk or trend toward increased risk was observed in most subgroups except for those aged 70 years and older, with a significant increase in risk in younger individuals, those with a Charlson’s comorbidity index <5, and those who received mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273>BNT162b2). Within the 1-day to 42-day post-dose risk period, the relative risk was highest during the 1-day to 7-day post-dose period (1.59; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.60) compared to the control period, and then the risk declined. In the sensitivity analysis, we found that the longer the risk window, the smaller the RI.
CONCLUSIONS
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of lymphadenopathy, and this risk was observed only with mRNA vaccines.
Summary
Korean summary
질병관리청의 코로나19 예방접종자료와 국민건강보험공단 자료를 이용하여 수행한 본 자기대조환자군 연구에서 코로나19 백신접종은 42일 내 림프절병증 발생위험을 1.17배 (95% 신뢰구간, 1.17-1.18) 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 위험의 증가는 mRNA 백신에 국한하여 관찰되었으며 연령이 낮을수록, 여성일수록 상대위험도가 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
This self-controlled case series study, using the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency COVID-19 vaccination database and the National Health Insurance Service database, showed an increased risk of developing lymphadenopathy following vaccination (RR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.18). The elevated risk of lymphadenopathy is specifically associated with mRNA platform vaccines, not viral vector vaccines, and is more pronounced in younger individuals and females.
Effects of multigrain rice and white rice on periodontitis: an analysis using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015
Seung-Hee Ryu, Zi-lan Wang, Seon-Jip Kim, Hyun-Jae Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023063.   Published online July 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023063
  • 4,471 View
  • 120 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of whole grains; however, research on multigrain remains limited. Grains exhibit combined positive effects against various diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multigrain and white rice consumption on periodontitis.
METHODS
We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-3 and VI, collected between 2012 and 2015, which included 12,450 patients (4,859 male and 7,591 female) aged 19-64 years. The World Health Organization’s Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was utilized to assess the presence of periodontitis, with periodontitis defined as a CPI index score of ≥3. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
RESULTS
The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.93). When stratified by sex, the risk of periodontitis demonstrated a 24% decrease in female who consumed only multigrain rice (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.93). A similar result was observed in the age group of 40-64 years (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99). In the diabetes stratification model, the normal group that consumed only multigrain rice exhibited a 25% decrease in the odds of periodontitis (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that the prevalence of periodontitis may vary depending on the type of rice consumed.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 우리나라의 대규모 자료를 이용하여 쌀 섭취 종류가 치주염 위험에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 우리의 연구 결과는 잡곡밥을 매일 2회 이상 섭취하는 것이 흰쌀밥을 먹는 것보다 치주염 예방에 더 효과적이라는 것을 보여준다. 이러한 결과는 당뇨병이 있는 사람에 비해 건강한 사람, 남성보다는 여성, 40~64세에서 더 큰 예방 효과를 시사한다.
Key Message
In this study, we examined the impact of different types of rice consumption on the risk of periodontitis using large-scale data from Korea. The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR]=0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.93). The risk of periodontitis was reduced by 24% in female who consumed only multigrain rice, 16% decrease in the 40–64 age group, and in the diabetic stratification model, the normal group who consumed only multigrain rice had a 25% decrease in periodontitis risk.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends and Characteristics of Brown Rice Consumption among Adults in Japan: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, 2012–2019
    Nayu Ikeda, Miwa Yamaguchi, Nobuo Nishi
    Nutrients.2024; 16(10): 1473.     CrossRef
Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales at a long-term care facility in Seoul, Korea: surveillance and intervention mitigation strategies
Yoojin Park, Euncheol Son, Young June Choe, Cho Ryok Kang, Sangmi Roh, Young Ok Hwang, Sung-il Cho, Jihwan Bang
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023057.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023057
  • 5,165 View
  • 285 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Because effective decolonization options are not available, and treatment options are limited, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) constitute increasingly threatening nosocomial pathogens. To prevent CRE-associated transmission and ensure patient safety, healthcare personnel and everyone in contact with CRE-infected patients must implement stringent infection control practices. This report describes a CRE outbreak, possibly related to a caregiver at a long-term care facility (LTCF), and presents a new surveillance model to improve the infection control of CRE in Seoul, Korea.
METHODS
The Seoul Metropolitan Government surveillance system identified an outbreak of CRE in an LTCF in 2022. We obtained data on the demographic characteristics and contact histories of the inpatients, medical staff, and caregivers. To isolate the inpatients and employees exposed to CRE, we used rectal swab samples and environmental sampling during the study period (May-December 2022).
RESULTS
We identified 18 cluster cases (1 caregiver and 17 inpatients) and 12 sporadic cases with CRE, and conducted a complete 197-day follow-up of all cases in the LTCF’s isolation wards.
CONCLUSIONS
This investigation demonstrated that our surveillance model and targeted intervention, based on the cooperation of the municipal government, public health center, and infection control advisory committee, effectively contained the epidemic at the LTCF. Measures to improve the compliance of all employees in LTCFs with infection control guidelines should also be adopted.
Summary
Korean summary
서울시 CRE 감시체계를 통해 2022년 한 요양병원의 집단발생을 인지하였다. 현장역학조사를 실시하여 18명의 집단발생 사례(1명 간병인, 17명 입원환자)와 12명의 산발적인 사례를 확인하였고 감염관리 컨설팅을 통해 유행을 확산을 방지하는 중재를 시행하였다.
Key Message
The Seoul Metropolitan Government surveillance system identified an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) in 2022. We identified 18 cluster cases (1 caregiver and 17 inpatients) and 12 sporadic cases with CRE. In the current study, we could demonstrate that our surveillance model and targeted intervention, based on the cooperation of the municipal government, public health center, and infection control advisory committee, effectively contained the epidemic at the LTCF. Measures to improve the compliance of all employees in LTCFs with infection control guidelines should also be adopted.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Role of Probiotics in Preventing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Colonization in the Intensive Care Unit: Risk Factors and Microbiome Analysis Study
    Jung-Hwan Lee, Jongbeom Shin, Soo-Hyun Park, Boram Cha, Ji-Taek Hong, Don-Haeng Lee, Kye Sook Kwon
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(12): 2970.     CrossRef
Epidemiologic Investigation
Epidemiological investigation of a food-borne outbreak in a kindergarten, Jeju Province, Korea
Kyoung Mi Kim, Eun Suk Cho, Seong Bae Ahn, Eun Ok Kang, Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023047.   Published online April 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023047
  • 5,360 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
On Monday, September 6, 2021, at a kindergarten in Jeju Province, a large number of children vomited and developed food poisoning symptoms, and this necessitated an epidemiological investigation.
METHODS
The team surveyed symptoms and food intake history of kindergarten children, teachers, and workers who ate lunch between September 2 (Thursday) and September 6 (Monday), excluding weekends. In addition to rectal swabs, environmental samples from preserved foods, cooking utensils, drinking water, and refrigerator handles were collected. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for genetic fingerprint analysis was also performed.
RESULTS
There were 19 cases among 176 subjects, which indicated an attack rate of 10.8%. The epidemic curve showed a unimodal shape, and the average incubation period was 2.6 hours. While no food was statistically significant in food intake history, the analysis of 35 rectal smear samples detected Bacillus cereus in 7 children, 4 teachers, and 1 cooking staff. Enterotoxins were also detected in 12 samples. Out of 38 environmental samples, B. cereus and enterotoxins were detected in the morning snack cereal, lunch bean sprouts, and afternoon snack steamed potatoes on Monday, September 6th. The result of the PFGE test on 10 isolates of B. cereus showed that there was no genetic homology.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results indicated that this outbreak was simultaneously caused by various strains of B. cereus from the environment.
Summary
Korean summary
모 유치원에서 제공한 급식 취식아동에서 발열이 없고 구토형의 주증상인 식중독이 발생되었다. 평균 잠복기 2.6시간 (최소 0.8, 최대 4.5시간)이며, 인체 및 환경 검체에서 바실러스 세레우스 균이 분리되었다. 이에 해당 집단발생은 구토형 바실러스 세레우스 감염증에 의한 식중독을 결론지었다.
Key Message
A large number of children in a kindergarten vomited suddenly. The average incubation period was 2.6 hours (min 0.8, max 4.5 hours) with uni-modal shape in the epidemic curve. Bacillus cereus and entertoxin were detected in rectal smear and environmental samples.
Original Articles
Smokeless tobacco consumption and its association with tobacco control factors in the Western Pacific Region: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2015-2019
Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Anusha Manoharan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022103.   Published online November 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022103
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption and its associations with tobacco control factors among school-going youth in 18 Western Pacific Region (WPR) countries.
METHODS
We analyzed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2014-2019) microdata from 18 WPR countries and estimated weighted prevalence rates of ST consumption, cigarette smoking, and dual use. We used multilevel binary logistic regression to examine the associations of ST consumption and dual use with demographic variables, exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER indicators.
RESULTS
Data from 58,263 school-going youth were analyzed. The prevalence of past 30-day ST consumption was highest in Kiribati (42.1%), the Marshall Islands (26.1%), Micronesia (21.3%), Palau (16.0%), and Papua New Guinea (15.2%). In adjusted multilevel models, ST consumption and dual use were significantly associated with sex, age, parental smoking, pro-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER score. For each unit increase in score for cessation programs, we observed approximately 1.4-fold increases in the odds of youth ST consumption (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.66) and dual use (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.86). Similarly, for each unit increase in score for health-related warnings, the odds of both ST consumption (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.53) and dual use (aOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.42) decreased by approximately 60%.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of youth ST consumption was substantial in the Pacific Islands, exceeding that of cigarette smoking in some countries. Implementing MPOWER measures for ST products could help reduce ST consumption.
Summary
Key Message
The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption, and cigarette smoking is considerably high among the school going youth in five pacific island nations of Western Pacific Region. Exposure to pro-tobacco factors and parental smoking were positively associated with youth smokeless tobacco consumption as well as dual use (both smokeless tobacco and cigarettes smoking) Closer monitoring and strict tobacco control policies are needed to prevent further escalation of smokeless tobacco consumption.

Citations

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  • Single, Dual, and Poly Use of Tobacco Products, and Associated Factors Among Adults in 18 Global Adult Tobacco Survey Countries During 2015–2021
    Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Kiran Acharya, N. RamakrishnaReddy
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
The association between tobacco or nicotine product use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Korea
Da-eun Lee, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022087.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022087
  • 4,806 View
  • 260 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
It is necessary to investigate tobacco or nicotine product (TNP) use which acts as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Especially, wearing a mask is difficult to practice while using TNP. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the association between TNP use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS
The samples of 208,618 Korean adults from 2020 Community Health Survey in Korea were used. As an independent variable, TNP use behaviors such as TNP use status, changes in TNP use after the COVID-19 outbreak, TNP types, and attempt to quit were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed on gender-stratified participants.
RESULTS
Among men, the odds ratio (OR) of current and former TNP users were 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.40) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.60), respectively, compared to never users. In women, OR was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.26) for former users. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than non-cigarette tobacco or nicotine product (NCTNP) use (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.08). Men whose TNP use decreased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.74); while women whose TNP use increased had lower non-compliance (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.26).
CONCLUSIONS
Current and former users were less likely to wear masks. Cigarette use was more associated with not wearing a mask than NCTNP use. Changes in TNP use showed association for men and women; however, in the opposite direction. Therefore, more attention should be paid to TNP use prevention and cessation support during the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases. Moreover, it is necessary to identify risk factors of cigarette users in compliance with mask-wearing.
Summary
Korean summary
담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Tobacco or Nicotine Products, TNPs) 현재사용자와 과거사용자는 비사용자 대비 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높고, 비궐련 담배 또는 니코틴 제품 (Non-Cigarette Tobacco or Nicotine Products, NCTNPs) 사용자보다는 일반담배 사용자의 마스크 미착용 연관성이 높다. 남성에서는 코로나19 유행 이전 대비 TNPs 사용이 감소했을 때, 여성에서는 증가했을 때 마스크 미착용 연관성이 낮았다. 따라서 호흡기 감염병 유행 시기에는 더욱 TNPs 사용 예방과 금연 지원에 관심을 가질 것을 제안한다.
Key Message
During the epidemic of respiratory infectious diseases, more attention should be paid to tobacco or nicotine products (TNPs) use prevention and cessation support.
Epidemiologic Investigation
Investigation of a human brucellosis outbreak in Douz, Tunisia, 2018
Nejib Charaa, Rabaa Ghrab, Aicha Ben Othman, Mohamed Makhlouf, Hejer Ltaief, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Mohamed Chahed
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022048.   Published online May 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022048
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In 2017, the incidence of human brucellosis in Tunisia was 9.8 per 100,000 population. In the Douz district, 2 cases were reported in March 2018. Prior to that date, the last indigenous cases to be reported in Douz had been in 2015. This study aimed to identify the source of this new contamination and recommend control interventions.
METHODS
This case-control study included residents of Douz who presented with clinical symptoms of brucellosis and had a subsequent Wright test antibody titer ≥ 1/160. The controls were neighbors of the infected cases who had a negative Rose Bengal test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios of risk factors. Goats belonging to the cases and controls were actively screened.
RESULTS
Twenty-five infected cases and 52 uninfected controls were enrolled. All infected cases had consumed goat milk and 92% had purchased it from the same breeder. Consumption of goat milk from this breeder (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 30.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.47 to 235.91) and overall consumption of raw goat milk (aOR, 14.84; 95% CI, 2.04 to 310.44) were independent risk factors for brucellosis. The breeder had 18 goats, 5 of which were smuggled from a neighboring country. Three of those goats were diagnosed with brucellosis.
CONCLUSIONS
Consumption of raw milk from smuggled sick goats was the main risk factor in this outbreak. The sick goats were slaughtered and an education campaign was conducted. Vaccination, control of cross-border animal movements, and control of goat milk sales must be strengthened to prevent the spread of brucellosis in southwestern Tunisia.
Summary
Key Message
Human brucellosis, despite being a major economic and health problem and the availability of proven control methods, is still endemic in North African countries. The scarcity of epidemiological data, under-reporting, certain weaknesses in surveillance systems and the lack of well-conducted outbreak investigations, contribute to this endemic state. This field epidemiological investigation of a human brucellosis outbreak highlighted the importance of serological surveillance, the slaughter of infected animals, vaccination, control of animal movements across borders and pasteurization of milk in the fight against this disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long ignored but making a comeback: a worldwide epidemiological evolution of human brucellosis
    Zhiguo Liu, Liping Gao, Miao Wang, Min Yuan, Zhenjun Li
    Emerging Microbes & Infections.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Native circulating Brucella melitensis lineages causing a brucellosis epidemic in Qinghai, China
    Hongmei Xue, Zhijun Zhao, Jianling Wang, Li Ma, Jiquan Li, Xuxin Yang, Lingling Ren, Liqing Xu, Zhiguo Liu, Zhenjun Li
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Systematic Review
The effect of peer support in diabetes self-management education on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Akhmad Azmiardi, Bhisma Murti, Ratih Puspita Febrinasari, Didik Gunawan Tamtomo
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021090.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021090
  • 13,231 View
  • 300 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Diabetes self-management education (DSME) programs are a strategy to maintain healthy behaviors. Nevertheless, limited evidence has been reported from systematic evaluations of the effects of DSME integrated with peer support on glycemic control. This study aimed to review the effectiveness of DSME interventions integrated with peer support on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS
A systematic search was carried out in electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for English-language articles published from 2005 until 2020. The effect size was estimated as the standard mean difference (SMD). The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool was employed to assess the risk of bias.
RESULTS
Twelve studies were included in this study. DSME integrated with peer support effectively reduced glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, with a statistically significant effect (SMD, -0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69 to -0.13; p<0.001). Programs with a sample size <100 (SMD, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.11; p=0.009), duration of intervention ≤6 months (SMD, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.07; p=0.020), baseline HbA1c <8.5% (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -0.77 to -0.07; p=0.020), delivery by group (SMD, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.06; p=0.010), and high frequency of contact (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.10; p=0.003) had statistically significant effects on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
DSME integrated with peer support effectively enhances glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Programs with smaller participants groups, shorter interventions, weekly meetings, and closer group sessions improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Summary
Key Message
We reviewed and assessed the quality of the twelve articles included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The findings of this review show that peer support integrated with diabetes self-management education programs can significantly enhance glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Peer support is a critical component of a successful diabetes self-management programme in patients with type 2 diabetes. interventions programme with smaller groups, shorter durations, lower HbA1c baseline levels, group sessions, and high frequencies of sessions significantly enhanced glycemic control.

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COVID-19: Perspective
Dengue and COVID-19 infections in the ASEAN region: a concurrent outbreak of viral diseases
Lowilius Wiyono, Ian Christoper N. Rocha, Trisha Denise D. Cedeño, Adriana Viola Miranda, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021070.   Published online September 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021070
  • 11,769 View
  • 283 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have faced dengue outbreaks for decades, and the region has one of the highest rates of dengue globally. Outbreaks continue to occur concurrently with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the 10 ASEAN countries. Both infectious diseases pose a tremendous burden in these countries related to both infection control and the economy. Increases in the number of dengue cases occurred in part due to disruptions in the pathogen-host-vector relationship caused by changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of dengue was further aggravated by the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing policies. These measures limited the coverage of dengue preventive programs and delayed the medical management of both diseases due to co-infection and misdiagnosis. It is of the utmost importance for the population to remain aware of both diseases, and dengue vector control strategies must be devised to properly address outbreaks using digitalization and remote surveillance. Similarly, critical triage algorithms and further research are also needed to combat co-infection and misdiagnosis. Controlling the spread of COVID-19 though vaccination should also be undertaken to reduce the impact of the pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
The rising dengue infection amidst the COVID-19 pandemic has indicated the need of response to mitigate the dangers of both dengue and COVID-19. Appropriate measurement from all ASEAN countries are needed to lower the number of cases and ease the burden of both dengue and COVID-19 management."

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Original Articles
Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) and the risk of leprosy in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, 2016-2017
Nancy Carolina Cuevas, Victor M. Cardenas
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021060.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021060
  • 7,939 View
  • 100 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Paraguay has experienced a 35% reduction in the detected incidence of leprosy during the last ten years, as the vaccination coverage against tuberculosis (Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin [BCG] vaccine) reached ≥95% among infants. The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the protective effect of BCG on the risk of leprosy.
METHODS
We used a population-based case-control study of 20 leprosy confirmed cases reported among residents of Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, diagnosed in 2016-2017. Three controls were selected from a random sample of households from the city. We assessed vaccine effectiveness using 1- odds ratio [OR], and confounding for age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status using stratified and exact logistic regression, and explored if there was effect modification calculating the synergy factor (SF) and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).
RESULTS
After controlling for age, gender, education, occupation and marital status, the OR of BCG scar on the risk of leprosy was 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.45), for an estimate of vaccine effectiveness of 89.5% reduced risk of leprosy (95% CI, 55.2 to 98.1). There was evidence of heterogeneity by which the effectiveness of BCG seemed stronger among younger persons (Breslow-Day and Z-test of the SF had a p<0.05), and both the RERI and SF indicated a less then multiplicative and additive interaction of BCG and younger age.
CONCLUSIONS
BCG vaccination was associated with a decreased risk of leprosy in the study population, particularly in persons born after 1980.
Summary
Key Message
Paraguay had the second highest reported incidence in the Americas, but no previous study had investigated the topic of BCG for leprosy in Paraguay. We confirmed that BCG protected from leprosy, hence it may have contributed to the observed decline of leprosy.

Citations

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  • BCG and SARS-CoV-2—What Have We Learned?
    Jakub Kulesza, Ewelina Kulesza, Piotr Koziński, Wojciech Karpik, Marlena Broncel, Marek Fol
    Vaccines.2022; 10(10): 1641.     CrossRef
Modeling the relationship between malaria prevalence and insecticide-treated bed net coverage in Nigeria using a Bayesian spatial generalized linear mixed model with a Leroux prior
Oluyemi A. Okunlola, Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi, Adewale F. Lukman
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021041.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021041
  • 10,508 View
  • 319 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate malaria transmission in relation to insecticide-treated net (ITN) coverage in Nigeria.
METHODS
We used an exploratory analysis approach to evaluate variation in malaria transmission in relation to ITN distribution in 1,325 Demographic and Health Survey clusters in Nigeria. A Bayesian spatial generalized linear mixed model with a Leroux conditional autoregressive prior for the random effects was used to model the spatial and contextual variation in malaria prevalence and ITN distribution after adjusting for environmental variables.
RESULTS
Spatial smoothed maps showed the nationwide distribution of malaria and ITN. The distribution of ITN varied significantly across the 6 geopolitical zones (p<0.05). The North-East had the least ITN distribution (0.196±0.071), while ITN distribution was highest in the South-South (0.309±0.075). ITN coverage was also higher in rural areas (0.281±0.074) than in urban areas (0.240±0.096, p<0.05). The Bayesian hierarchical regression results showed a non-significant negative relationship between malaria prevalence and ITN coverage, but a significant spatial structured random effect and unstructured random effect. The correlates of malaria transmission included rainfall, maximum temperature, and proximity to water.
CONCLUSIONS
Reduction in malaria transmission was not significantly related to ITN coverage, although much could be achieved in attempts to curtail malaria transmission through enhanced ITN coverage. A multifaceted and integrated approach to malaria control is strongly advocated.
Summary
Key Message
Scaling up equity in ITN distribution and coverage, awareness and knowledge on ITN utilization are important integrated approaches to mitigate malaria transmission in Nigeria.

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    Oluyemi A. Okunlola, Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi, Luzia Helena Carvalho
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Brief Communication
Prospective cohort data quality assurance and quality control strategy and method: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
Soo Min Kim, Yunsu Choi, Bo Youl Choi, Minjeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Jun Young Choi, Shin-Woo Kim, Joon Young Song, Youn Jeong Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Myeongsu Yoo, Jeong Gyu Lee, Bo Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020063.   Published online September 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020063
  • 12,229 View
  • 214 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of effective data quality control and management is to minimize the impact of errors on study results by identifying and correcting them. This study presents the results of a data quality control system for the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study that took into account the characteristics of the data.
METHODS
The HIV/AIDS Cohort Study in Korea conducts repeated measurements every 6 months using an electronic survey administered to voluntarily consenting participants and collects data from 21 hospitals. In total, 5,795 sets of data from 1,442 participants were collected from the first investigation in 2006 to 2016. The data refining results of 2015 and 2019 were converted into the data refining rate and compared.
RESULTS
The quality control system involved 3 steps at different points in the process, and each step contributed to data quality management and results. By improving data quality control in the pre-phase and the data collection phase, the estimated error value in 2019 was 1,803, reflecting a 53.9% reduction from 2015. Due to improvements in the stage after data collection, the data refining rate was 92.7% in 2019, a 24.21%p increase from 2015.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite this quality management strategy, errors may still exist at each stage. Logically possible errors for the post-review refining of downloaded data should be actively identified with appropriate consideration of the purpose and epidemiological characteristics of the study data. To improve data quality and reliability, data management strategies should be systematically implemented.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 에이즈 코호트 자료의 연구 목적과 역학적 특성을 고려한 체계적인 질 관리 방법과 결과를 제시한다. 시간적 선후 관계를 고려한 로직을 활용한 자료정제 과정을 비롯한 3단계의 체계적인 질 관리 방법은 이제껏 없었던 국내 코호트 자료 질 관리에 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다.

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    Belmiro Sousa, Sergio Chiale, Hayley Bryant, Lisa Dulli, Tanya Medrano
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COVID-19: Original Article
Estimation of the number of working population at high-risk of COVID-19 infection in Korea
Juyeon Lee, Myounghee Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020051.   Published online July 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020051
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to identify occupational groups at high-risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Korea, to estimate the number of such workers, and to examine the prevalence of protective resources by employment status.
METHODS
Based on the sixth Standard Occupational Classification codes, 2015 census data were linked with data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey, which measured how frequently workers directly come into contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace.
RESULTS
A total of 30 occupational groups, including 7 occupations from the healthcare and welfare sectors and 23 from other sectors, were classified as high-risk occupational groups involving frequent contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace (more than half of the working hours). Approximately 1.4 million (women, 79.1%) and 10.7 million workers (46.3%) are employed in high-risk occupations. Occupations with a larger proportion of women are more likely to be at a high-risk of infection and are paid less. For wage-earners in high-risk occupations, protective resources to deal with COVID-19 (e.g., trade unions and health and safety committees) are less prevalent among temporary or daily workers than among those with permanent employment.
CONCLUSIONS
Given the large number of Koreans employed in high-risk occupations and inequalities within the working population, the workplace needs to be the key locus for governmental actions to control COVID-19, and special consideration for vulnerable workers is warranted.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나바이러스감염증-19 (코로나19) 유행 상황에서 감염 고위험 직업군 종사자는 보건의료복지 업종에서 총 140만 명, 그 외 업종에서 총 1,073만 명으로 추정된다. 고위험 사업장에 대해 정부가 안전보건 관리·감독·규제 및 지원 체계를 수립하고, 방역대책의 중심에 노동자의 안전과 건강 보호를 두는 관점의 전환이 필요하다. 우선 당장 역학조사 과정에서 직업관련 요소를 자세히 확인하고, 직업관련 감염에 대한 모니터링과 그에 걸맞는 대책을 마련해야 한다.

Citations

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