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COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in food and nutrient intakes in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023015.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023015
  • 4,952 View
  • 239 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS.
RESULTS
In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease).
CONCLUSIONS
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행 전, 후 비교 시, 외식 감소, 가정식 섭취 증가 등 식생활은 변화가 있었으나 주요 식품 및 영양소 섭취는 큰 변화없이 최근 10년간의 추이가 지속되고 있었다.
Key Message
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years in Korean adults.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative study on the health and dietary habits of Korean male and female adults before and after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: utilizing data from the 8th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2019–2021)
    Chaemin Kim, Eunjung Kim
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2024; 29(1): 65.     CrossRef
Data Profile
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data linked Cause of Death data
Sungha Yun, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022021.   Published online February 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022021
  • 14,029 View
  • 676 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national health survey that is conducted annually to assess the health and and health-related behaviors of Korean population. To utilize KNHANES data to studies of mortality risk factors, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) constructed a database linking KNHANES data to cause-of-death statistics in Statistics Korea, made available to researchers since 2020. The KNHANES data were linked to the Cause of Death Statistics based on resident registration numbers for subjects aged 19 years or older who agreed to link the data. The linkage rate between 2007-2015 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2007-2019 Cause of Death Statistics was 97.1%. In the linked dataset, the total death rate was 6.6%, of which neoplasms accounted for the highest death rate (32.1%), followed by circulatory system disease (22.7%) and respiratory system disease (11.5%). The linked dataset was made available through the Research Data Center of the KDCA after a review of the research proposal, and will be made available after periodical updates.
Summary
Korean summary
1. 국민건강영양조사 자료가 사망 위험요인 규명 연구에 활용되도록 통계청의 사망원인통계와 연계자료 구축함 2. 2007~2015년 국민건강영양조사와 2007~2019년 사망원인통계의 연계율은 97.1%이었음 3. 국민건강영양조사-사망원인통계 연계자료는 2020년부터 연구자에게 질병관리청 내 학술연구자료처리실를 통해 제공되고 있음
Key Message
1. To utilize the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data to studies of mortality risk factors, the data were linked to the Cause of Death Statistics in the Statistics Korea. 2. The linkage rate between the 2007-2015 KNHANES and the 2007-2019 Cause of Death Statistics was 97.1%. 3. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data linked Cause of Death data have been provided to researchers through the Research Data Center in the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) since 2020.

Citations

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  • Chronic Disease Patterns and Their Relationship With Health-Related Quality of Life in South Korean Older Adults With the 2021 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Latent Class Analysis
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2024; 10: e49433.     CrossRef
  • Computational method of the cardiovascular diseases classification based on a generalized nonlinear canonical decomposition of random sequences
    Igor Atamanyuk, Yuriy Kondratenko, Valerii Havrysh, Yuriy Volosyuk
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Association between Advanced Liver Fibrosis and Mortality Is Modified by Dietary Quality among Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with Mortality Data
    Juhee Lee, Garam Jo, Dahyun Park, Hee Ju Jun, Jae Hyun Bae, Min-Jeong Shin
    Nutrients.2023; 15(6): 1501.     CrossRef
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    Kyuwoong Kim, Hamee Kim, Tae Joon Jun, Young-Hak Kim, Dong Keon Yon
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(5): e0286346.     CrossRef
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    Young-Gyun Seo, Stergios A. Polyzos, Kyung-Hee Park, Christos S. Mantzoros
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2023; 21(13): 3322.     CrossRef
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    Jae Yeol Kim, Jae-Woo Jung, Min-Jong Kang, Deog Kyeom Kim, Hayoung Choi, Young-Jae Cho, Seung Hun Jang, Chang-Hoon Lee, Yeon Mok Oh, Ji Sook Park
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(5): 714.     CrossRef
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    Sangjun Lee, Kwang-Pil Ko, Jung Eun Lee, Inah Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Aesun Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin, Sangmin Park, Seungho Ryu, Sun Young Yang, Seung Ho Choi, Jeongseon Kim, Sang-Wook Yi, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue K. Park
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    Kayoung Lee
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Original Articles
Effects of exposure to ambient air pollution on pulmonary function impairment in Korea: the 2007-2017 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey
Soo Beom Choi, Sungha Yun, Sun-Ja Kim, Yong Bum Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021082.   Published online October 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021082
  • 7,937 View
  • 162 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the association between pulmonary function and air pollution using 2007-2017 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional representative survey.
METHODS
A total of 27,378 participants that had sampling weights from a complex sample survey were included in this study. Using the data for forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, the participants with pulmonary function impairment were classified according to the criteria of restrictive lung disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to ambient air pollution was estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses with complex samples were used to determine the associations between pulmonary function and air pollution after adjusting for covariates.
RESULTS
In total, 13.2% of the participants aged >40 years had COPD, and 10.7% were classified as being in the restrictive lung disease group. According to the multivariate logistic regression model, the odds ratios for the fourth quartiles of particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a 2-year lag period were 1.203 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.036 to 1.396), 1.283 (95% CI, 1.101 to1.495), and 1.292 (95% CI, 1.110 to 1.504), respectively, using the restrictive lung disease group as an event after adjusting for covariates in the complex sample.
CONCLUSIONS
Long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and CO was significantly associated with pulmonary function, especially restrictive lung disease.
Summary
Korean summary
대기오염이 폐기능에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 2007년부터 2017년까지 국민건강영양조사자료와 대기질 자료를 연계하여 참여자 27,378명의 대기오염 노출량을 추정하여 분석하였다. 나이, 성별, 거주지 동/읍면 구분, 교육수준, 소득수준, 흡연, 비만, 기온, 상대습도 변수들을 보정 후 PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3의 2년평균 노출량을 각각 로지스틱회귀모형으로 분석한 결과 PM10, PM2.5, CO 와 제한성 환기장애가 연관성을 보였다. 대기오염의 노출은 만성폐쇄성폐질환보다는 제한성 환기장애와 연관이 있었으며 제한성 환기장애는 사망원인과도 연관이 있었다.
Key Message
This study aimed to investigate the association between pulmonary function and air pollution using 2007-2017 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and CO was significantly associated with pulmonary function, especially restrictive lung disease. Although the COPD criteria do not include the restrictive lung disease group, restrictive lung disease needs to be controlled and managed based on its mortality risk. Reducing air pollution is also necessary to enhance pulmonary function.

Citations

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  • Airborne Exposure of the Cornea to PM10 Induces Oxidative Stress and Disrupts Nrf2 Mediated Anti-Oxidant Defenses
    Mallika Somayajulu, Sharon A. McClellan, Robert Wright, Ahalya Pitchaikannu, Bridget Croniger, Kezhong Zhang, Linda D. Hazlett
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(4): 3911.     CrossRef
Trends in food and nutrient intake over 20 years: findings from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sanghui Kweon, Jin Young Park, Myungsook Park, Yangha Kim, So Yeong Yeon, Leena Yoon, Sungha Yun, Suyeon Park, Ji Eun Yang, Youngtaek Kim, Ok Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021027.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021027
  • 11,486 View
  • 367 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to examine the current status and trends of food and nutrient intake in the Korean population over the past 20 years using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
We conducted a survey of 116,284 subjects over the age of one year in Korea, who participated in the KNHANES between 1998 and 2018. We collected data on the subjects’ intake for the day before using the 24-hour recall method. The annual percent change (APC) in the food groups and nutrient intake were calculated using SAS and Joinpoint software.
RESULTS
The intake of grains (APC=-0.4, p<0.05) and vegetables (APC=-0.8, p<0.05) was observed to decrease. In contrast, the intake of beverages, meat, dairy, and eggs increased. In particular, beverage intake increased by more than four times (APC=9.2, p<0.05). There was no significant change in energy intake. However, the proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates decreased by approximately 5%p (APC=-0.3, p<0.05), whereas that from fat increased by approximately 5%p (APC= 1.1, p<0.05). Additionally, there were decreases in the proportion of energy intake from breakfast and homemade meals and increases in the energy intake from snacks, dining out, and convenience food. The intake of vitamin C (APC=-3.2, p<0.05) and sodium (APC=-2.3, p<0.05) significantly decreased.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 20 years, there has been decreases in the intake of grains, vegetables, carbohydrates, sodium, and vitamin C and increases in the intake of beverages, dairy, meat, eggs, and fat. Since nutritional status is an important factor in the prevention and management of chronic diseases, it should be continuously monitored.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998-2018) 자료를 활용하여 우리 국민의 지난 20년간의 식품 및 영양소 섭취 현황 및 추이를 분석한 결과, 곡류, 채소류, 탄수화물, 나트륨, 비타민 C 섭취 감소, 음료류, 우유류, 육류, 난류, 지방 섭취 증가 등 식품 및 영양소 섭취에 변화가 있었다.
Key Message
We examined the current status and trends of food and nutrient intake in the Korean population using the data from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Over the past 20 years, there have been decreases in the intake of grains, vegetables, carbohydrates, sodium, and vitamin C and increases in the intake of beverages, dairy, meat, eggs, and fat.

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    BMJ Open.2024; 14(2): e076650.     CrossRef
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    Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023015.     CrossRef
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Methods
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 20th anniversary: accomplishments and future directions
Kyungwon Oh, Yoonjung Kim, Sanghui Kweon, Soyeon Kim, Sungha Yun, Suyeon Park, Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Youngtaek Kim, Ok Park, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021025.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021025
  • 21,316 View
  • 581 Download
  • 71 Web of Science
  • 83 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was initiated in 1998 to provide evidence for the development and evaluation of health policies and programs. The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency is responsible for the KNHANES and has conducted it as a series of surveys. Over the past 20 years, efforts to produce accurate, timely, and nationwide health statistics have been refined by establishing a continuous annual survey system with full-time field staff, incrementally expanding survey components, collaborating with relevant academic societies for quality control, and revising the survey methods. Additionally, the utility of the collected data was increased by linking the KNHANES data with related data from other government agencies or institutions and making the overall data publicly available on the official website of KNHANES (https://knhanes.kdca.go.kr). Additional long-term plans are being developed, including plans to continue producing nationwide health indicators and invigorating the utilization of the KNHANES data.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사는 국민건강증진법제16조에 근거하여 1998년부터 우리 국민의 건강수준, 건강행태, 식품 및 영양소 섭취 실태에 대한 국가단위 통계를 산출하는 조사사업이다. 본 연구에서는 건강지표 생산 확대, 조사 자료 활용도 향상 등 20년간의 성과를 요약하고 사회환경과 조사여건 변화를 반영한 건강통계 생산의 발전 방안을 제시하였다.
Key Message
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is an ongoing surveillance system that was initiated in 1998 based on Ar¬ticle 16 of the National Health Promotion Act to produce nationwide statistics regarding the health status, health behaviors, and food and nutrient consumption of the Korean population. In this study, the 20-year accomplishments of the KNHANES including vigorous production of health indicators and improvement of data utilization are summarized, and future plans are presented to improve the health statistics to reflect changes in the social and survey environments.

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Data Profile
Establishment of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey air pollution study dataset for the researchers on the health impact of ambient air pollution
Myung-Jae Hwang, Jisun Sung, Miryoung Yoon, Jong-Hun Kim, Hui-Young Yun, Dae-Ryun Choi, Youn-Seo Koo, Kyungwon Oh, Sungha Yun, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021015.   Published online February 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021015
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
To provide a nationwide representative dataset for the study on health impact of air pollution, we combined the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with the daily air quality and weather data by matching the date of examination and the residential address of the participants. The database of meteorological factors and air quality as sources of exposure data were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. The linkage dataset was merged by three ways; administrative district, <i>si-gun-gu</i> (city, county, and district), and geocode (in latitude and longitude coordinate units) based on the participants’ residential address, respectively. During the study period, the exposure dataset of 85,018 individuals (38,306 men and 46,712 women) whose examination dates were recorded were obtained. According to the definition of exposure period, the dataset was combined with the data on short-term, mid-term, and long-term exposure to air pollutants and the meteorological indices. Calculation of the daily merged dataset’s average air pollution linked by <i>si-gun-gu</i> and geocode units showed similar results. This study generated a daily average of meteorological indices and air pollution exposure dataset for all regions including rural and remote areas in Korea for 11 years. It is expected to provide a platform for the researchers studying the health impact of air pollution and climate change on the representative population and area, which may facilitate the establishment of local health care plans by understanding the residents’ health status at the local as well as national level.
Summary
Korean summary
-2007년부터 2017년까지 11년간 국민건강영양조사의 검진조사 대상자의 검진일자와 지리정보를 기준으로 85,018명에 대해 기상 및 대기오염 모델링 자료를 결합하여 조사 대상자의 거주지주소를 이용하여 시·군·구 단위와 주소 기반 위경도 좌표를 기준으로 각각 노출자료를 결합함. -대기오염의 단기노출, 중기노출, 장기노출의 건강영향을 평가하기 위해 지연효과(lag effect)를 적용하여 각 건강자료와 결합함. -기상 및 대기오염 모델링 자료와 연계된 국민건강영양조사의 활용을 위한 data profile을 제시함.
Key Message
-We built a dataset for air pollution research by combining meteorological and air pollution modeling data through CMAQ for 85,018 individuals based on the date of examination and geographic information of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants for 11 years, from 2007 to 2017. -Each exposure data was combined based on si-gun-gu (city, county, and district) and geocode (in latitude and longitude coordinate units) based on the participants’ residential address. -To evaluate the health effects of short-, medium- and long-term air pollution exposure, the lag values of days, months, and years was applied and combined with each health data. -A data profile was presented for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked to meteorological and air pollution modeling data.

Citations

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