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2 "Jaelim Cho"
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Cohort profile: the Environmental-Pollution-Induced Neurological EFfects (EPINEF) study: a multicenter cohort study of Korean adults
Heeseon Jang, Woojin Kim, Jaelim Cho, Jungwoo Sohn, Juhwan Noh, Gayoung Seo, Seung-Koo Lee, Young Noh, Sung Soo Oh, Sang-Baek Koh, Hee Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Ho Hyun Kim, Jung Il Lee, Sun-Young Kim, Changsoo Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021067.   Published online September 16, 2021
  • 6,479 View
  • 211 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The general population is exposed to numerous environmental pollutants, and it remains unclear which pollutants affect the brain, accelerating brain aging and increasing the risk of dementia. The Environmental-Pollution-Induced Neurological Effects study is a multi-city prospective cohort study aiming to comprehensively investigate the effect of different environmental pollutants on brain structures, neuropsychological function, and the development of dementia in adults. The baseline data of 3,775 healthy elderly people were collected from August 2014 to March 2018. The eligibility criteria were age ≥50 years and no self-reported history of dementia, movement disorders, or stroke. The assessment included demographics and anthropometrics, laboratory test results, and individual levels of exposure to air pollution. A neuroimaging sub-cohort was also recruited with 1,022 participants during the same period, and brain magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests were conducted. The first follow-up environmental pollutant measurements will start in 2022 and the follow-up for the sub-cohort will be conducted every 3-4 years. We have found that subtle structural changes in the brain may be induced by exposure to airborne pollutants such as particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10), particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) and Mn10, manganese in PM10; Mn2.5, manganese in PM2.5. PM10, PM2.5, and nitrogen dioxide in healthy adults. This study provides a basis for research involving large-scale, long-term neuroimaging assessments in community-based populations.
Korean summary
EPINEF 코호트는 환경유해인자에 의한 신경계 질환의 위해성을 평가하고, 환경유해인자로 유발되는 신경심리학적 기능 저하 또는 뇌 노화에 대한 근거를 제공하기 위해 2014년부터 50세 이상의 건강한 성인을 대상으로 시작되었습니다. 본 코호트는 뇌 영상학적 표지자와 인지 기능과 관련된 환경유해인자를 광범위하게 조사한 한국 최초의 장기 추적관찰 연구로, 대기 오염 물질 또는 다환방향족탄화수소 노출이 대뇌 영상표지자 및 신경심리학적 기능, 노인의 우울 증상에 대한 악화 요인으로서의 대기오염물질 노출과 결혼 상태의 교호작용 등의 연구결과들을 발표하였습니다. 또한, 추후에도 코호트의 지속적인 추적을 통해 환경유해인자 노출에 따른 신경학적 건강영향을 연구하여, 신경계 질환 관리를 위한 보건 정책 개선에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 기대됩니다.
Key Message
The EPINEF cohort was started in 2014 to assess the risk of neurological diseases caused by environmental harmful factors and to provide evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction or brain aging induced by these factors. This cohort is the first long-term follow-up study in Korea to extensively investigate brain imaging markers and environmental harmful factors related to cognitive function, and several related research results have been published. In addition, the follow-up survey will be continued in the future, and we expect that the results of the study will contribute to improving health policies for the management of neurological diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations of Particulate Matter Exposures With Brain Gray Matter Thickness and White Matter Hyperintensities: Effect Modification by Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation
    Jaelim Cho, Heeseon Jang, Young Noh, Seung-Koo Lee, Sang-Baek Koh, Sun-Young Kim, Changsoo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Surveillance of long-term environmental elements and PM2.5 health risk assessment in Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2020
    Keqin Wu, Yuanhua Meng, Yan Gong, Xuhui Zhang, Linlin Wu, Xinliang Ding, Xiaofeng Chen
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2022; 29(54): 81993.     CrossRef
  • Reduced brain subcortical volumes in patients with glaucoma: a pilot neuroimaging study using the region-of-interest-based approach
    Yae Won Ha, Heeseon Jang, Sang-Baek Koh, Young Noh, Seung-Koo Lee, Sang Won Seo, Jaelim Cho, Changsoo Kim
    BMC Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Factors Associated with a Low-sodium Diet: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Won Joon Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Jaelim Cho, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013005.   Published online June 20, 2013
  • 14,778 View
  • 114 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet.


This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ≤2,000 mg/day based on 24-hour recalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets.


Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ≥1 time/day, respectively.


Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.

Korean summary
Key Message


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison between 24-hour diet recall and 24-hour urine collection for estimating sodium and potassium intakes and their ratio among Korean adults
    Taisun Hyun, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Heekyong Ro, Young-Hee Han, Yeon-Kyung Lee
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2023; 17(2): 284.     CrossRef
  • Association between Eating Habits and Sodium Intake among Chinese University Students
    Minchan Wu, Yue Xi, Jiaqi Huo, Caihong Xiang, Cuiting Yong, Jiajing Liang, Hanshuang Zou, Yunfeng Pan, Qingqing Xie, Qian Lin
    Nutrients.2023; 15(7): 1570.     CrossRef
  • Sodium and Potassium Urinary Excretion Among Malaysian Adults Claiming to Practice Salt-control: Findings from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS)
    Munawara Pardi, Syafinaz Mohd Sallehuddin, Lalitha Palaniveloo, Norazizah Wong Ibrahim
    Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences.2022; 18(6): 5.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of salt intake assessed by 24-h urinary sodium level among adults speaking different dialects from the Chaoshan region of southern China
    Fen Cai, Wen-Ya Dong, Jia-Xin Jiang, Xiao-Li Chen, Yue Wang, Chang-Yu Deng, Qing-Ying Zhang
    Public Health Nutrition.2021; 24(2): 290.     CrossRef
  • Mood and Metabolic Health Status of Elderly Osteoporotic Patients in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Nationally Representative Sample
    Hyen Chul Jo, Gu-Hee Jung, Seong-Ho Ok, Ji Eun Park, Jong Chul Baek
    Healthcare.2021; 9(1): 77.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of prehypertension and its risk factors in midlife and late life: Indonesian family life survey 2014–2015
    Aida Lydia, Siti Setiati, Czeresna Heriawan Soejono, Rahmi Istanti, Jessica Marsigit, Muhammad Khifzhon Azwar
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Regional disparities in healthy eating and nutritional status in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017
    Jounghee Lee, Jaesin Sa
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2020; 14(6): 679.     CrossRef
  • Inverse association of improved adherence to dietary guidelines with metabolic syndrome: the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management program
    Dongwoo Ham, YoungYun Cho, Mi-Suk Park, Yun-Sug Park, Sun-Young Kim, Hye-Min Seol, Yoo Mi Park, Sunok Woo, Hyojee Joung, Do-Sun Lim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2020; 14(6): 621.     CrossRef
  • Association between family dinner and BMI in adults: data from the 2013 to 2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Woongchan Rah, Jaewon So, Eun-Cheol Park, Sang Ah Lee, Sung-In Jang
    Public Health Nutrition.2019; 22(4): 681.     CrossRef
  • Global Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guidelines
    Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong Woo Jeon, Sung Taik Heo
    Circulation.2018; 138(21): 2312.     CrossRef
  • Sodium excretion and health-related quality of life: the results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011
    Hye Min Choi, Kyu-Beck Lee, Hyang Kim, Young Youl Hyun
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2018; 72(11): 1490.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Blood Pressure and Prevalence of Hypertension in Korean Adults Based on the 1998–2014 KNHANES
    Tae-Jong Kim, Jae-woo Lee, Hee-Taik Kang, Myeong-Chan Cho, Hyoung-Ji Lim, Jin-Young Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Yong-Jae Lee, Sang-Hyun Lee, John A. Linton, Yeseul Kim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2018; 59(3): 356.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Determinants of Sodium Intake in Adult Populations of High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
    American Journal of Public Health.2017; 107(4): e1.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion
    Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
    Medicine.2016; 95(9): e2864.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of dietary intake in Korean adults according to energy intake from eating-out: Based on 2013~2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yun-Jung Bae
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2016; 49(6): 482.     CrossRef
  • The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES): current status and challenges
    Yuna Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2014; 36: e2014002.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health