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Original Articles
The association between migraine and Parkinson’s disease: a nationwide cohort study in Korea
Woo-Seok Ha, Jaeho Kim, Hee Won Hwang, Sue Hyun Lee, Ji In Kim, Jin Yong Hong, Sang Hyun Park, Kyung Do Han, Min Seok Baek
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024010.   Published online December 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024010
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Clinical studies have suggested an association between migraine and the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is unknown whether migraine affects PD risk. We aimed to investigate the incidence of PD in patients with migraine and to determine the risk factors affecting the association between migraine and PD incidence.
METHODS
Using the Korean National Health Insurance System database (2002-2019), we enrolled all Koreans aged ≥40 years who participated in the national health screening program in 2009. International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) diagnostic codes and Rare Incurable Diseases System diagnostic codes were used to define patients with migraine (within 12 months of enrollment) and newly diagnosed PD.
RESULTS
We included 214,193 patients with migraine and 5,879,711 individuals without migraine. During 9.1 years of follow-up (55,435,626 person-years), 1,973 (0.92%) and 30,664 (0.52%) individuals with and without migraine, respectively, were newly diagnosed with PD. Following covariate adjustment, patients with migraine showed a 1.35-fold higher PD risk than individuals without migraine. The incidence of PD was not significantly different between patients with migraine with aura and those without aura. In males with migraine, underlying dyslipidemia increased the risk of PD (p=0.012). In contrast, among females with migraine, younger age (<65 years) increased the risk of PD (p=0.038).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with migraine were more likely to develop PD than individuals without migraine. Preventive management of underlying comorbidities and chronic migraine may affect the incidence of PD in these patients. Future prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to clarify this association.
Summary
Korean summary
편두통 환자들은 편두통이 없는 이들보다 장기적으로 파킨슨병이 발병할 위험이 더 높습니다. 더불어, 이 관계는 편두통의 아형(전조 vs. 무전조)보다는 편두통의 빈도(삽화성 vs. 만성)와 더 밀접한 연관성을 갖는 것으로 보입니다.
Key Message
Patients with migraine are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than individuals without migraine. Furthermore, this association appears to be more strongly linked to the frequency of migraines (episodic vs. chronic) rather than the subtype of migraine (with aura vs. without aura).
Risk factors for early-onset lung cancer in Korea: analysis of a nationally representative population-based cohort
Jihun Kang, Taeyun Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Su-Min Jeong, Yo Hwan Yeo, Kyuwon Jung, Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Cho, Dong Wook Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023101.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023101
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined the associations of socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and comorbidities with early-onset lung cancer.
METHODS
The study included 6,794,287 individuals aged 20-39 years who participated in a Korean national health check-up program from 2009 to 2012. During the follow-up period, 4,684 participants developed lung cancer. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations of potential risk factors with incident lung cancer.
RESULTS
Older age (multivariable hazard ratio [mHR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.14) and female sex (mHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.49 to 1.75) were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Current smoking was also associated with elevated risk (<10 pack-years: mHR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; ≥10 pack-years: mHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.45), but past smoking was not. Although mild alcohol consumption (<10 g/day) was associated with lower lung cancer risk (mHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99), heavier alcohol consumption (≥10 g/day) was not. Higher income (highest vs. lowest quartile: mHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94), physical activity for at least 1,500 metabolic equivalent of task-min/wk (vs. non-exercisers: mHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99) and obesity (vs. normal weight: mHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96) were associated with lower lung cancer risk, whereas metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk (mHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24).
CONCLUSIONS
In young adults, age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer, while high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects.
Summary
Korean summary
나이, 여성, 흡연, 그리고 대사 증후군은 조기 발생 폐암의 위험도 증가와 연관이 있었다. 반면에 높은 소득, 신체 활동, 비만은 젊은 성인에서 폐암 발생의 위험도 감소와 연관성을 나타내었다.
Key Message
Age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer. While, high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects on the development of lung cancer in young adults.
Special Article
Evidence integration on health damage for humidifier disinfectant exposure and legal presumption of causation
Mina Ha, Taehyun Park, Jong-Hyun Lee, Younghee Kim, Jungyun Lim, Yong-Wook Baek, Sol Yu, Hyen-Mi Chung, Kyu Hyuck Chung, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Review Committee for the Epidemiological Correlations between Humidifier Disinfectants Exposure and Health Effects
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023095.   Published online October 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023095
  • 1,690 View
  • 118 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Inhalation exposure to humidifier disinfectants has resulted to various types of health damages in Korea. To determine the epidemiological correlation necessary for presuming the legal causation, we aimed to develop a method to synthesize the entire evidence.
METHODS
Epidemiological and toxicological studies are systematically reviewed. Target health problems are selected by criteria such as frequent complaints of claimants. Relevant epidemiologic studies are reviewed and the risk of bias and confidence level of the total evidence are evaluated. Toxicological literature reviews are conducted on three lines of evidence including hazard information, animal studies, and mechanistic studies, considering the source-to-exposure-to-outcome continuum. The confidence level of the body of evidence is then translated into the toxicological evidence levels for the causality between humidifier disinfectant exposure and health effects. Finally, the levels of epidemiological and toxicological evidence are synthesized.
RESULTS
Under the Special Act revised in 2020, if the history of exposure and the disease occurred/worsened after exposure were approved, and the epidemiological correlation between the exposure and disease was verified, the legal causation is presumed unless the company proves the evidence against it. The epidemiological correlation can be verified through epidemiological investigations, health monitoring, cohort investigations and/or toxicological studies. It is not simply as statistical association as understood in judicial precedents, but a general causation established by the evidence as a whole, i.e., through weight-of-the-evidence approach.
CONCLUSIONS
The weight-of-the-evidence approach differs from the conclusive single study approach and this systematic evidence integration can be used in presumption of causation.
Summary
Korean summary
저자들은 가습기살균제 노출로 인한 건강피해의 법적 인과관계 추정요건인 역학적 상관관계를 확인하기 위한 과정으로서 체계적 문헌고찰과 역학과 독성학의 전체 과학적 근거를 체계적으로 종합하는 방법을 제시하였다. 이것은 법적 증거 방법에서 개별 연구가 가지는 제한점이나 불확실성을 이유로 배척하지 않고, 전체 증거의 부분으로서 종합적으로 접근하는 것을 통해 사실 관계에 도달하는 방법이다. 이 전체증거접근법은 향후 인과관계 추정에서 전범(model)이 될 수 있다.
Key Message
We establish a systematic method for integrating a body of scientific evidence of epidemiology and toxicology to verify the epidemiological correlation, which is essential for presuming legal causation of health damages due to exposure to humidifier disinfectants. In terms of a legal proof, this method does not exclude individual studies due to their limitations or uncertainty but integrates them as part of a body of evidence to arrive at a conclusion that better reflects the truth of the evidence. This weight-of-the-evidence approach can be a model for future causal inference.
Cohort Profile
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC) cohort: study protocol and results of the first 3 years of enrollment
Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Jung Hyun Lee, Seung Won Lee, Ji Hye Park, Dong Phil Choi, Myung Ha Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017016.   Published online April 1, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017016
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  • 328 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 37 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Although the etiologies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are widely understood, the goal of finding a globally effective solution for preventing CVD is unrealistic. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a community-based prospective study on the prevention and management of CVD in Korean adults. This study was designed to recruit 8,000 healthy adults over the course of 5 years. The baseline assessment includes a wide range of established CVD risk factors, including demographic characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, psychological conditions, body size and composition, blood pressure, the augmentation index, carotid ultrasonography, an electrocardiogram, and biochemical indicators, as well as some novel factors, such as social network characteristics, exposure to environmental pollutants, inflammatory markers, hemostatic markers, and immunosenescence markers. Annual telephone interviews and follow-up health examinations at 5-year intervals after the baseline assessment are planned to collect information on changes in health status and its determinants. Additionally, indirect follow-up using secondary data sources will be conducted to obtain information on health services utilization and death. So far, more than 6,000 adults have been enrolled during the first three and a half years, and almost all participants have been tracked by annual telephone follow-up surveys. The data have been uploaded to iCReaT, the clinical research information management system of the Korea National Institute of Health.
Summary
Korean summary
심뇌혈관 및 대사질환 원인연구센터(Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center)에서는 심뇌혈관질환 및 대사질환의 새로운 발병 원인을 찾고 효율적인 예방 전략을 개발하고자 코호트(CMERC cohort와 CMERC-HI cohort)를 구축하였다. 지역사회에 거주하는 만 30-64세 건강한 성인을 대상으로 하는 CMERC cohort는 2013년부터 2018년 까지 총 5년 동안 8000명 등록을 목표로 기반조사를 진행 중이며(2016년 12월 현재 6000여명 등록), 이미 알려진 다양한 위험요인 이외에 사회연결망 정보와 면역노화 관련 바이오마커 등 새로운 위험 요인에 관한 광범위한 정보가 수집되고 있다. CMERC cohort는 심뇌혈관 및 대사질환 예방연구의 기초자료로 활용되어 과학적 데이터에 근거한 예방 전략 수립에 기여하게 될 것이다.

Citations

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Original Articles
Epidemiological Comparison of viral hepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and non viral hepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).
Pae Gun Park, Song Gyu Yoon, Hee Sup Lee, Jin Kun Jang, Ju Hee Maeng, Gee Hyun Lee, Jong Soo Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2003;25(1):32-38.
  • 5,278 View
  • 37 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Korea is one of high incidence areas of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and major etiologic factor is hepatitis B virus (HBV). In future incidence of HBV related HCC may decrease and non viral hepatitis HCC (Non-B,C HCC) relatively increase because of widely used vaccination for HBV. To evaluate epidemiological characters of Non-B,C HCC, We divided HCC by viral or non-viral feature and compared each others.
METHODS
185 patients firstly diagnosed HCC and 455 normal subjects included from January 1997 to December 2000 and divided into 3 groups, HBV group (positive HBsAg), HCV group (positive anti-HCV Ab) and Non-B,C group (both negative HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab).
RESULTS
136 cases were HBV group (73.5%), 19 cases were HCV group (10.3%) and 27 cases were Non-B,C group (14.6%). Mean age of Non-B,C group at diagnosis was higher than HBV group (64.1+/-7.1 vs 55.6+/-7.7). Non-B,C HCC were more associated with alcohol abuse and rural residence (p<0.01). There was no difference of family history of liver disease, coexistence rate of liver cirrhosis and occupation.
CONCLUSION
Non-B,C HCC tended to be older in mean age than HBV HCC and more associated with alcohol abuse and rural residence. This characteristics of Non-B,C HCC supposed to be from difference in alcohol consumption and environment.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Investigation on the Mode of Transmission of the Lethal Salmonellosis Outbreak in Hamyang County.
Jang Rak Kim, Sang Won Lee, Hong Bin Kim, Jin Cha, Kwang Hyun Lee, Kang Woo Bae
Korean J Epidemiol. 1999;21(2):185-194.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis epidemic involving about 200 inpatients of gastroenteritis and 1 death occurred among about 750 participants from Hamyang County who attended 4 wedding lunch parties at one buffet restaurant on April 25, 1999. There were also many patients including 1 death among about 500 participants outside Hamyang County who attended same parties. Person to person interviews made to 155 inpatients revealed that distribution of incubation periods was between 1 to 34 hours with median time, 13-14 hours. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the mode of transmission. Telephone interviews were made to party participants (except 61 inpatients who already had been interviewed personally) on symptoms and on which they had eaten among 40 served foods including water at the parties and data among 288 persons were available for the analyses. One hundred and ninety one interviewees had more than two symptoms among symptoms of diarrhea(more than 3 times), abdominal pain, and fever, which gave an attack rate of 66.3%(191/288). The relative short incubation period and high attack rate suggested the presence of higher infecting dose in this epidemic. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the probable infective foods were boiled cockle, gamju, boiled midodok, fried rices, eomook, and boiled pig's trotter. Salmonella enteritidis were identified in the specimens of boiled cockle, cooked beef, and uncooked beef. Only boiled cockle was both an epidemiological and microbiological infective food. There might be cross-contaminations between several served foods, which meant presence of many contaminated foods by Salmonella enteritidis with different stage of their multiplications. Efforts to inspect food service areas and educate foodhandlers in good personal hygiene and proper foodhandling practices should be strengthened to reduce the incidences of salmonellosis in Korea.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health