Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health



Page Path
HOME > Search
1 "Burkay Yakar"
Article category
Publication year
COVID-19: Original Article
The role of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Mehmet Onur Kaya, Esra Pamukçu, Burkay Yakar
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021074.   Published online September 23, 2021
  • 18,707 View
  • 641 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 40 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Although vaccination has started, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a continuing threat to public health. Therefore, in addition to vaccination, the use of supplements to support the immune system may be important. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence on the possible effect of low serum vitamin D levels (25[OH]D<20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L) on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.
We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect without any language restrictions for articles published between January 1 and December 15, 2020. We performed 3 meta-analyses (called vitamin D and COVID-19 infection meta-analysis [D-CIMA], vitamin D and COVID-19 severity meta-analysis [D-CSMA], and vitamin D and COV ID-19 mortality meta-analysis [D-CMMA] for COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality, respectively) to combine odds ratio values according to laboratory measurement units for vitamin D and the measured serum 25(OH)D level.
Twenty-one eligible studies were found to be relevant to the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 infection/outcomes (n=205,869). The D-CIMA meta-analysis showed that individuals with low serum vitamin D levels were 1.64 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.04; p<0.001) more likely to contract COVID-19. The D-CSMA meta-analysis showed that people with serum 25(OH)D levels below 20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L were 2.42 times (95% CI, 1.13 to 5.18; p=0.022) more likely to have severe COVID-19. The D-CMMA meta-analysis showed that low vitamin D levels had no effect on COVID-19 mortality (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 5.06, p=0.390).
According to our results, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection and the likelihood of severe disease. Therefore, we recommend vitamin D supplementation to prevent COVID-19 and its negative outcomes.
Key Message
Although vaccination has started, it seems that Covid-19 will continue to threaten public health for a long time. In addition to the vaccine, the use of supplements to support the immune system may also be important. The purpose of this study is to indicate the possible effect of low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL or 50nmol/L) on the Covid-19 infection and outcomes. According to our remarkable results, vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of Covid-19 infection and the potential for the severity of the disease. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should be added to prevention and treatment protocols for Covid-19 disease.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations do not affect the humoral or cellular immune response following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations
    A.H.A. Lavell, A.E. Schramade, J.J. Sikkens, K. van der Straten, K.A. van Dort, M.A. Slim, B. Appelman, L.A. van Vught, A.P.J. Vlaar, N.A. Kootstra, M.J. van Gils, Y.M. Smulders, R.T. de Jongh, M.K. Bomers, Brent Appelman, Diederik Beek van de, Marije K.
    Vaccine.2024; 42(7): 1478.     CrossRef
  • The Protective Effect of Serum Levels of Vitamins C, D, and E and IgG and IgM Antibodies in Individuals Vaccinated Against COVID-19 and Experienced Disease Relapse
    Ashkan Alamdary, Alireaza Gholami, Maryam Shahali, Delaram Doroud, Rasul Moukhah, Mohammad Javad Hossein Tehrani, Rajab Mardani, Nayebali Ahmadi
    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exploring demographical, clinical, and dietary determinants of vitamin D deficiency among adults in Douala, Cameroon during the COVID-19 era
    Arlette Flore Moguem Soubgui, Wilfried Steve Ndeme Mboussi, Loick Pradel Kojom Foko, Elisée Libert Embolo Enyegue, Martin Luther Koanga Mogtomo
    Heliyon.2024; 10(3): e24926.     CrossRef
  • Dynamic Shifts in Vitamin D Status Following Liposuction: Implications for Patient Monitoring and Health
    Hüseyin KANDULU
    Ağrı Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi.2024; 2(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • The role of vitamin D in outcomes of critical care in COVID-19 patients: evidence from an umbrella meta-analysis of interventional and observational studies
    Abdolreza Jamilian, Faezeh Ghalichi, Fatemeh Hamedi Kalajahi, Nima Radkhah, Neda Jourabchi, Vali Musazadeh, Ehsan Amini-Salehi, Meysam Zarezadeh, Alireza Ostadrahimi
    Public Health Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19
    Adrian R. Martineau
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.2023; 82(2): 200.     CrossRef
  • 100 years of vitamin D. The impact of vitamin D level in the time of COVID-19 pandemic
    K. A. Golovatyuk, A. A. Mikhailova, D. I. Lagutina, A. T. Chernikova, T. L. Karonova
    Russian Journal for Personalized Medicine.2023; 2(6): 33.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D3 and COVID-19 Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
    Fausto Petrelli, Simone Oldani, Karen Borgonovo, Mary Cabiddu, Giuseppina Dognini, Mara Ghilardi, Maria Chiara Parati, Daniela Petro’, Lorenzo Dottorini, Carmen Rea, Veronica Lonati, Andrea Luciani, Antonio Ghidini
    Antioxidants.2023; 12(2): 247.     CrossRef
  • Genetic Variations of the Vitamin D Metabolic Pathway and COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity: Current Understanding and Existing Evidence
    Nipith Charoenngam, Aunchalee Jaroenlapnopparat, Sofia K. Mettler, Ashna Grover
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(2): 400.     CrossRef
  • MC-Au/MSS-Z8 porous network assisted advanced electrochemical immunosensing of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
    Amandeep Kaur, Lavisha, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Nirmal Prabhakar
    Talanta.2023; 257: 124376.     CrossRef
  • Nutritional deficiencies that may predispose to long COVID
    John V. Schloss
    Inflammopharmacology.2023; 31(2): 573.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Food Consumption Trends among American Adults since the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Lillie Monroe-Lord, Elgloria Harrison, Azam Ardakani, Xuejling Duan, Lily Spechler, Tia D. Jeffery, Phronie Jackson
    Nutrients.2023; 15(7): 1769.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Diet and Specific Nutrients during the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Have We Learned over the Last Three Years?
    Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(7): 5400.     CrossRef
  • The role of serum vitamin 25(OH)D concentration in the Covid-19 pandemic in children
    Chrysoula Kosmeri, Foteini Balomenou, Dimitrios Rallis, Maria Baltogianni, Vasileios Giapros
    British Journal of Nutrition.2023; 130(3): 417.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D metabolism parameters in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
    A. A. Mikhailova, K. A. Golovatyuk, D. I. Lagutina, A. T. Chernikova, E. Yu. Vasilieva, E. S. Bykova, T.  L. Karonova
    Translational Medicine.2023; 10(2): 69.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with disease severity and poor prognosis in young and elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to medical wards in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy: a multicentre retrospective study
    Sirio Fiorino, Andrea Carusi, Alessandro Zappi, Fabio Tateo, Luca Peruzzo, Melissa Zanardi, Francesco Savelli, Giulia Di Marzio, Silvia Cesaretti, Francesca Dazzani, Raffaella Francesconi , Paolo Leandri , Gianfranco Tortorici , Susanna Vicari , Dora Melu
    Italian Journal of Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Six years’ experience and trends of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and the effect of vitamin D3 consumption on these trends
    László Horváth, Sara Mirani, Michael Magdy Fahmy Girgis, Szilvia Rácz, Ildikó Bácskay, Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Béla E. Tóth
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neuroimmunological Effect of Vitamin D on Neuropsychiatric Long COVID Syndrome: A Review
    Ting-Bin Chen, Ching-Mao Chang, Cheng-Chia Yang, I-Ju Tsai, Cheng-Yu Wei, Hao-Wen Yang, Chun-Pai Yang
    Nutrients.2023; 15(17): 3802.     CrossRef
  • The effect of vitamin D deficiency on the cellular immunity of patients in the early stage of COVID-19 disease
    Ali Sadeg, Abbas Arrak
    Bionatura.2023; 8(CSS 3): 1.     CrossRef
  • Distribution of Vitamin D Status in a Group from Syrian Society
    Talleh Almelli
    Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.2023; 16(4): 680.     CrossRef
  • Effects of environmental parameters and their interactions on the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 in North Italy under different social restrictions. A new approach based on multivariate analysis
    Fabio Tateo, Sirio Fiorino, Luca Peruzzo, Maddalena Zippi, Dario De Biase, Federico Lari, Dora Melucci
    Environmental Research.2022; 210: 112921.     CrossRef
  • The Relation between Vitamin D Level and Lung Clearance Index in Cystic Fibrosis—A Pilot Study
    Mihaela Dediu, Ioana Mihaiela Ciuca, Liviu Laurentiu Pop, Daniela Iacob
    Children.2022; 9(3): 329.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Cholecalciferol Supplementation on the Clinical Features and Inflammatory Markers in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Center Study
    Tatiana L. Karonova, Ksenia A. Golovatyuk, Igor V. Kudryavtsev, Alena T. Chernikova, Arina A. Mikhaylova, Arthur D. Aquino, Daria I. Lagutina, Ekaterina K. Zaikova, Olga V. Kalinina, Alexey S. Golovkin, William B. Grant, Evgeny V. Shlyakhto
    Nutrients.2022; 14(13): 2602.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D Endocrine System and COVID-19: Treatment with Calcifediol
    Jose Manuel Quesada-Gomez, José Lopez-Miranda, Marta Entrenas-Castillo, Antonio Casado-Díaz, Xavier Nogues y Solans, José Luis Mansur, Roger Bouillon
    Nutrients.2022; 14(13): 2716.     CrossRef
  • Impaired Vitamin D Metabolism in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
    Alexandra Povaliaeva, Viktor Bogdanov, Ekaterina Pigarova, Larisa Dzeranova, Nino Katamadze, Natalya Malysheva, Vitaliy Ioutsi, Larisa Nikankina, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Natalia Mokrysheva
    Pharmaceuticals.2022; 15(8): 906.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D and COVID-19. Two years of research
    Andrey P. Fisenko, Svetlana G. Makarova, Dmitry S. Yasakov, Irina Yu. Pronina, Oksana A. Ereshko, Irina G. Gordeeva, Albina A. Galimova, Tamara R. Chumbadze, Evgeny Е. Emelyashenkov, Ayina M. Lebedeva
    Russian Pediatric Journal.2022; 25(3): 199.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D as the essential immunonutrient – the evidence base update: A review
    Svetlana G. Makarova, Evgeny E. Emelyashenkov, Dmitry S. Yasakov, Irina Yu. Pronina, Oksana A. Ereshko, Irina G. Gordeeva, Albina A. Galimova, Tamara R. Chumbadze, Ayina M. Lebedeva
    Pediatrics. Consilium Medicum.2022; (2): 133.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Severity and Mortality in Two Pandemic Waves in Poland and Predictors of Poor Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Hospitalized Young Adults
    Laura Ziuzia-Januszewska, Marcin Januszewski, Joanna Sosnowska-Nowak, Mariusz Janiszewski, Paweł Dobrzyński, Alicja A. Jakimiuk, Artur J. Jakimiuk
    Viruses.2022; 14(8): 1700.     CrossRef
  • Serum vitamin D levels and COVID-19 during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sadegh Mazaheri-Tehrani, Mohammad Hossein Mirzapour, Maryam Yazdi, Mohammad Fakhrolmobasheri, Amir Parsa Abhari
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2022; 51: 120.     CrossRef
  • Administration of vitamin D and its metabolites in critically ill adult patients: an updated systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Johannes Menger, Zheng-Yii Lee, Quirin Notz, Julia Wallqvist, M. Shahnaz Hasan, Gunnar Elke, Martin Dworschak, Patrick Meybohm, Daren K. Heyland, Christian Stoppe
    Critical Care.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial
    Sonja H Brunvoll, Anders B Nygaard, Merete Ellingjord-Dale, Petter Holland, Mette Stausland Istre, Karl Trygve Kalleberg, Camilla L Søraas, Kirsten B Holven, Stine M Ulven, Anette Hjartåker, Trond Haider, Fridtjof Lund-Johansen, John Arne Dahl, Haakon E M
    BMJ.2022; : e071245.     CrossRef
  • Adipokines, and not vitamin D, associate with antibody immune responses following dual BNT162b2 vaccination within individuals younger than 60 years
    Mariana Pavel-Tanasa, Daniela Constantinescu, Corina Maria Cianga, Ecaterina Anisie, Ana Irina Mereuta, Cristina Gabriela Tuchilus, Petru Cianga
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D intoxication induced severe hypercalcemia from self-medication for COVID-19 infection: a public health problem?
    Stefano PINI, Giuseppe SCAPARROTTA, Valentina DI VICO, Antonio FRAGASSO, Lucia F. STEFANELLI, Federico NALESSO, Lorenzo A. CALÒ
    Minerva Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Novel CYP11A1-Derived Vitamin D and Lumisterol Biometabolites for the Management of COVID-19
    Shariq Qayyum, Radomir M. Slominski, Chander Raman, Andrzej T. Slominski
    Nutrients.2022; 14(22): 4779.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Prevention: Vitamin D Is Still a Valid Remedy
    Rachel Nicoll, Michael Y. Henein
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(22): 6818.     CrossRef
  • Integrated bioinformatics and in silico approaches reveal the biological targets and molecular mechanisms of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D against COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus
    Fanqiang Zeng, Yongli Xu, Chaoling Tang, Zhigang Yan, Chaohe Wei
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Can vitamin D status influence seroconversion to SARS-COV2 vaccines?
    Endrit Shahini, Francesco Pesce, Antonella Argentiero, Antonio Giovanni Solimando
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cholecalciferol as part of complex therapy for acute COVID-19
    K.A. Golovatyuk, T.L. Karonova, A.A. Mikhailova, D.I. Lagutina, A.T. Chernikova, E.Yu. Vasilieva, E.V. Shlyakhto
    Profilakticheskaya meditsina.2022; 25(12): 106.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associated Disorders: A Literature Review
    Mohamed Abouzid, Franciszek Główka, Leonid Kagan, Marta Karaźniewicz-Łada
    Current Drug Metabolism.2022; 23(8): 630.     CrossRef
  • Nutraceuticals in prevention and management of COVID-19
    Ivana Đuričić, Milica Zrnić-Ćirić, Bojana Vidović, Vanja Todorović, Nevena Dabetić, Nevena Ivanović
    Hrana i ishrana.2021; 62(2): 7.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health