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Volume 29 (1); June 2007
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Retraction of Publication
Retraction: A time Series Analysis of the Death Rates and Rectanularization of the Survival Curve, 1970-2010.
Yong Gyu Park, Kyung Hwan Cho
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):100-101.
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Abstract
No abstract available.
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Original Articles
Nosocomial Bloodstream Infection in Intensive Care Unit in a General Hospital.
Ki Sook Kim, Soonduck Kim, Sunmi Ji, Jesuk Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):70-79.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
Despite of the development of recent medical technology, bloodstream infection (BSI) still has significant influences on mortality and morbidity of patients admitted to the ICU. The BSI has the second most frequent site. Especially BSI in ICU have higher infection rate than general ward. This study was investigated the incidence rate of the nosocomial BSI, risk factors and bacterial pathogens of BSI in ICU for a general hospital.
METHODS
This study was carried out for those 443 patients in ICU of general hospital during the period from March 2002 to February 2003. The definition for BSI was based on that of CDC. Data was collected by questionnaire, medical record review. The statistical SPSS(ver. 10.0) was used to analyze data that included chi-square, t-test and logistic regression.
RESULTS
In the incidence rates of the BSI were 76.7 in 1,000 per patients, 7.0 in per 1,000 patients days and 32.1 in per 1,000 patients with central lines, 3.2 in per 1,000 cental line days. In the incidence rates of the BSI by type of ICU showed MICU 10.1, SICU 2.9 in per 1,000 patients days. The significant risk factors were identified as type of ICU(OR=5.119, p=0.001), length of stay(OR=1.039, p=0.001). The causal microbes of the BSI were CNS 35.5%, MRSA 23.6%. The bacterial pathogens of central catheter-related BSI were CNS 50%, MRSA 50%.
CONCLUSION
The occurrence of ICU-acquired infection was significantly related to the increase in morbidity and mortality. Ongoing targeted surveillance and infection control strategies is necessary to control this problem.
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Annual average cancer incidence and trend of cancer incidence in Daegu for 5 years, 1997~2001.
Byung Yeol Chun, Jin Hoon Yang, Jung Hup Song, Ji Seun Lim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):59-69.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
This study is conducted to identify the annual average cancer incidence and the trend of cancer incidence in Daegu during the 5-year period from 1997 to 2001.
METHOD
Data on newly diagnosed cancer patients from 1997 to 2001 were collected with a standard registration form. Medical record reviewers visited hospitals if necessary, to detect missing cancer patients.
RESULTS
The annual average overall number of cancer patient was 4,606 (male 2,529 and female 2,077). The crude average annual incidence of cancer in male were 211.8 (ASR 251.4) and 169.8 (ASR 151.3) in female. Five major cancers in male were stomach (ASR 60.3), bronchus and lung (ASR 44.8), liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (ASR 40.7), rectum (ASR 11.2), and colon (ASR 10.8). However, in women, those were stomach (ASR 25.3), breast (ASR 19.8), cervix (ASR 14.9), bronchus and lung (ASR 12.7), liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (ASR 11.1). Increases in incidence were found for colon cancer for both sexes, rectal cancer for males, and lung and breast cancer for females. Decreases were shown for liver cancer for both sexes and stomach and cervical cancer for females.
CONCLUSIONS
Primary prevention of cancer based on results of this study remains important.
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The association between insulin resistance and Framingham risk score among type 2 diabetes.
Hee Sook Park, Ji Eun Yun, Soo Jin Yoon, Eurin Cho, Kyung A Ahn, Seok Won Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Dae Jung Kim, Young Duk Song, Young Ju Choi, Mi Ae Cho, Eun Jig Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):46-58.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND
AND PURPOSE: Insulin resistance has been known to be associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship with Framingham risk score among type 2 diabetes has not been well known. We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and the Framingham risk score(FRS) among type 2 diabetes in Korea.
METHODS
We estimated the 5-year risk of ischemic heart disease(IHD) based on Framingham equation among 1,941 diabetes patients(1,294 men and 647 women), who visited Huh's clinic, enrolled from January 2003 to June 2006. IR, which was measured by insulin tolerance test (ITT), was divided into five groups(Q1 to Q5). High risk of IHD was defined as upper 10 percentile of FRS. Multivariate regression and logistic regression models were used to see independent association of higher quintiles of IR level, compared with lowest quintile(Q1) for the risk of IHD.
RESULTS
Mean (+/-standard deviation) 5-year FRS of study subjects were 8.40%(+/-6.89) for men and 5.92%(+/-5.23) for women. There were significant correlation between IR, body mass index, HbA1C, fasting glucose, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, C-peptide and FRS in both men and women. After adjusting for triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, C-peptide, multivariate regression model analysis showed that IR was independently associated with the FRS. A positive association between IR and high risk of IHD was observed in men: highest versus lowest quintile of IR (odds ratio 5.45 in men and 4.71 in women).
CONCLUSION
Increased IR level was independently associated with risk of IHD measured by FRS among type 2 diabetes in Korea.
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A Study of Skiing and Snowboarding Injuries.
Woosung Chang, Soonduck Kim, Jesuk Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):34-45.
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Abstract
PURPOSE
To calculate the injury rate of skiers and snowboarders, to document the risk factors affecting injury, and to investigate the characteristics of the cause, kind and region of injury.
METHODS
A questionnaire survey was conducted at 4 major Kangwon - province ski resorts during the 2004 - 2005 winter season with 373 skiers and snowboarders. The statistical SPSS was used to analyze data that included chi-square, fisher's exact test, and multiple logistic regression. The mean mark of the safety rule by separating the skiers and snowboarders was compared between the two groups.
RESULTS
The injury and wound experience rates of the snowboarders (46.5%, 34.2% respectively) were higher than those of the skiers (33.2%, 25.5% respectively). The proportion of injury and wound for the skiers was 76.7% and for the snowboarders was 73.6%. The occurrence of injuries was higher among those with ski career of 5 to 9 years (p=0.012), those with a higher level of ski skills (p=0.002), those who used the higher slope (p=0.002) and those who skied 15 to 19 times(p=0.004). Based on the results of logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors for skiers were career, level, slope and visit number. Leg injuries accounted for 40.9% of total injuries among skiers, which was followed by arm injuries (35.9%) and head injuries (15.4%)(p=0.033).
CONCLUSIONS
The study therefore emphasizes safety training for individual skiers and overall conditions of ski resorts.
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Prevalence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in Korean high school students.
Kyung Tae Lee, Jaehyun Yoo, Bo Kyoung Kim, Hae Kwan Cheong
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):21-33.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND
AND OBJECTIVES: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is prevalent in the general population, but there are few reports on bowel habits and IBS in high school students in Korea. This study aims to describe the prevalence of IBS in high school students in Korea and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors including dietary habits, on the IBS. This study also investigates relationship between anxiety, depression and IBSprevalence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study on 1,018 students (451 males and 567 females) form freshman to senior of a high schools in Seoul. All students were requested to fill in a self-reported questionnaire. IBS was diagnosed based on the Rome II criteria. Those having past medical history of organic gastrointestinal disorders and any one of the 'alarm factors'(e.g. continuous hematochezia, weight loss, or anemic symptom) were excluded from the IBS group. For the evaluation of risk factors on the IBS, we surveyed dietary habit, health behavior, past medical history, the Hollingshed index for the measurement of socioeconomic status, Beck's Anxiety Inventory for the anxiety, and the Children's Depression Inventory for the depression.
RESULTS
The prevalence of IBS was 19.1%. Family history of abdominal discomfort (odds ratio 2.07, 95% 1.46-2.92) and having night snack (odds ratio 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.94) were significantly different between the IBS group and non-IBS group. There was a linear trend towards the higher prevalence of IBS with fewer hours of exercise (odds ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.04). Menstruation, stress, and irregular eating were the significant provocation factors of IBS. Anxiety and depression was not significantly higher in in the IBS group.
CONCLUSIONS
Prevalence of the IBS in high school students from this study was higher compared with those reported in college students in Korea. This study shows that family history, dietary factors, lifestyle, and grade were significantly related to IBS. From our study, we found that there are multifaceted health aspects required to reduce symptoms, such as dietary education and encouragement to change lifestyle for controlling stress.
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Reviews
Bioethics and privacy right on genetic epidemiology.
Jang Han Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):13-20.
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Abstract
Unlike the classical genetic study which dealt with the mendelian inheritances of relatively small number of patients, the genetic epidemiology study needs the large scaled genetic data base. The main ethical and legal problems of these kinds of studies are research design, informed consent, long term follow-up of research subjects, data sharing and benefit sharing. Classically, the informed consent was an important right but if these kinds of large scaled and long period studies were involved, the newly developing rights should be more stressed. The bioethics and biosafety act and governmental regulations for the genetic study and gene bank also shows those considerations. In EU, the general consent is considered acceptable if the approval of all future projects is fulfilled by a research ethics committee and the participants' right to withdraw samples at any times. In U.S.A., strict restriction is required for future experiments, but if the research involves no more than minimal risk to the subject, the waiver or alternation will not affect adversely the rights and welfare of subjects and the research could not be practicably carried out without the waiver or alteration, the specific future consents could be exempted. Long term follow up of research patients is needed to provide the newly developed information which would be helpful for the patients. Data sharing is needed to prevent the exclusive possession of genetic information. Benefit sharing is the newly coming up debates on how to manage the conflicts of interests between tissue-donors and scientific researchers. The context and inventory of human rights for the research is changing and still under construction.
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Bioethics and Protection of Personal Information in Experimental Studies.
Ock Joo Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(1):1-12.
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Abstract
Experimental studies involve intervention and manipulation of study elements such as randomization of the participating groups. In general, experimental studies involving human are riskier than observational studies, demanding robust ethical vigilance and compliance among such stakeholders as investigators, sponsors, IRBs and health authorities. Social values of research should be counted as a primary ethical consideration in experimental research. It is unethical to put human subjects into uncertain and risky conditions if the study does not pursue valuable knowledge. Sound scientific design is prerequisite for good ethics. Risk-benefit ratio of the study must be carefully evaluated study. Not only risks from physical harms but also socio-economical and psychological harms from the study should be considered as risk of the study. Risks from the design of the study such as randomization and placebo must be carefully examined. Voluntary informed consent is essential in experimental studies involving human. Human subjects, before they decide to participate in the study, must be informed the followings: risks, benefits, experimental procedures, alternative treatment, compensation for injury, and participants' voluntariness and right to withdraw at anytime. Experimental studies are usually required written consent documentation and full institutional review board (IRB) review. Other elements of experimental research ethics includes special protection for high risk groups and various vulnerable groups, and protection of privacy and confidentiality.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health