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Volume 11 (1); June 1989
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Article
Articles of association
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):141-142.
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List
List of membership
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):137-142.
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Index
Cumulative subject index of Korean Journal of Epidemiology (1979-1988)
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):129-135.
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Report
Public affairs reporting
Korean Society of Epidemiology
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):127-128.
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Original Articles
An epidemiological assessment of some communicable disease and immunization levels as observed through health center activities
Helen Chu, Sadamu Anzai
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):115-126.
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Abstract
Through an analytical review of epidemiological information on disease surveillance and factors affecting routine immunization levels determined on the basis of home visit interviews that we conducted as part of operational research into health center activities in Yongsan District, Seoul from 1982 to 1988, the following conclusions can be made regarding disease patterns: 1. The major diseases affecting children during this period were whooping cough, measles, and mumps, whereas polio and diphtheria disappeared. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitism has drastically decreased; that of Ascaris was 8.9% in 1982 and 0.1% in 1988, while that of hookworm declined from 0.03% in 1982 to only 0.02% now. Bacterial diseases no longer present any health problems. 2. The rates of immunization coverage among children aged 12-24 months against diseases preventable by immunization were: Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine, 79.2%; diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, 83.8%; trivalent oral polio vaccine, 85.6%; measles, 98.3%; mumps and rubella, 75.8%. Interviews with the members of households in which children had not been vaccinated indicated that half of the reasons offered for non-compliance reflected the lack of competing maternal responsibilities. It would appear logical to stress the importance of health education in the expanded program of immunization. 3. Radioimmunoassay profiles of hepatitis B virus markers prepared from the results of health examinations indicated that 8.5% of the sample was positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), with no statistical disparity between the sexes. The HBsAg-positivity rate among sex workers was 13.1%, which was much higher than was found in other groups. The reason for this finding requires further investigation.
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A seroepidemiological study of rubella on female employees in an university hospital by ELISA method
Yeo Jin Chung, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):107-114.
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Abstract
This study was carried out in 1988 on 435 randomly sampled females out of 1,728 female workers in an university hospital in order to obtain herd immunity level and its epidemiological characteristics. The presence of rubella antibody was checked by ELISA method(Rubazyme Diagnostic Kit-Ab-bott Laboratory) with the sera collected during periodic medical examination in 1987. Also Self-recorded questionnaire survey on demographic characteristics, history of vaccination and natural infection of rubella, and knowledge on relationship between the rubella infection during pregnancy and congenital malformation of the baby. The results obtained are summarized as followings: 1. The overall positive rate or rubella antibody detected by ELISA kit was 78.2%; there was no statistically significant differences of rubella antibody positive rate between age groups, duration of employment and specialty departments. The positive rate was significantly different, however, between professions, i.e., laboratory technicians showed the highest positive rate(93.3%) but pharmacists and dietician’s positive rate revealed the lowest(58.3%), which suggested the antibody positive rate was associated with the degree of exposure to the rubella virus. 2. On the question about the past history of natural infection and immunization of rubella, over one-half of the respodents checked on “status unknown”, and only 8.5% of them admitted having the history of infection and vaccination. Nevertheless there was no demonstrable association between the past history and the rubella antibody status, presence or absence. 3. On the question about knowledge concerning clinical characteristics, mode of transmission of rubella virus and association between rubella infection and fetal malformation, only 69% of the respondents acknowledged and it showed statistical difference between professions. The major source of information was formal education in professional schools. (This study was supported by Public Health Research Foundation)
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A study on the HBsAg positive rate among Korean adults and the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine
Ho Cheol Shin, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):98-106.
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Abstract
This study was carried out on 4347 Korean adults from 1986 to 1988 in order to understand HBsAg positive rate among healthy Korean adults and the negative seroconversion rate of HBsAg in the HBsAg carrier group during 2 years of observation period, and to assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine 2 years after vaccination. Between February and April 1986, 4347 persons, who were randomly cluster sampled among employees of Korea Electric Co., were screened for evidence of HBV infection. After screening test of HBV infection hepatitis B vaccine was given to these who showed no evidence of HBV infection between May and November 1986. Then the HBsAg carriers and vaccinees were followed up for serological re-examination between February and May 1988. All blood samples were tested for HBV markers (HBsAg, HBsAb, and HBeAg) by EIA and for aminotransferase. Hepatitis B vaccine (Hepavax-B, KGC) was given intramuscularly in the buttock at 0, 1, 6 months. And Z-test and Chi-square analysis were performed for statistical analysis of the results. Summaries of the results are as followings: 1) The HBsAg positive rate of the study population was 7.5% and was highest among 35-39 years of age group (9.2%, p<0.05) and in Cheju-Do by area(17.1%, p<0.05). 2) The HBsAg negative conversion rate of HBsAg carriers was 7.9% during 2 years of observation period. And the rate of elevated aminotransferase for the HBeAg positive HBsAg carriers(29.4%) was higher than that of HBeAg negative group(11.1%). (Df=1, X2=10.96, p<0.005, OR=3.3) 3) The HBsAb positive rate of vaccinees received 3 doses of Hepavax-B was 73.9% and was higher than that of group received 2 doses (73.3%, p>0.05), that of group received 1 doses(57.1%, P<0.01), and that of group received none(48.8% p< 0.01).
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Analysis of factors affecting diagnosis and treatment of nasal allergy
Young Moon Chae, In Yong Park, Seung Kyu Chung, Tae Young Chang
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):87-97.
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Abstract
Diagnostic procedures for nasal allergy consist of detailed history taking, anterior rhinoscopic examination, and skin test for specific allergen extracts. However, these procedures, often give conflicting results, and therefore, there is a need to determine a more consistent way to diagnose nasal allergy. While there have been many studies on the diagnosis of nasal allergy, they have largely been carried out with emphasis on the clinical side, rather than the epidemiologic side. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors affecting the diagnosis of nasal allergy using epidemiological and statistical methods. The results were as follows: 1. Factor analysis on four categories of patient characteristics showed that five factors were identified from the symptom category(explains 58.9% of the total variance); two factors were identified from the severity category(explains 58.5% of the total variance); nine factors were identified from the general characteristics category(explains 50.2% of the total variance); and seven factors were identified from the allergen specific characteristics category(explains 64.9% of the total variance). 2. Discriminant analysis, which was performed to identify important factors affecting the diagnosis of nasal allergy, showed that the factors form the symptoms and allergen specific characteristics categories produced the best results with the correct prediction rate of 90.2%. 3. Discriminant analysis which was also performed to identify important factors affecting the treatment of nasal allergy and showed that the factors from the symptoms, general characteristics, and allergen specific characteristics categories produced the best results with the correct prediction rate of 78.5%.
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A serologic survey for viral hepatitis infection (HAV, HBV), syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) among prostitutes
Helen Chu, Ernest T Takafuji, In Ho Chu
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):81-86.
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A case-control study on risk factors in lung cancer
Soo Yong Choi, Kyoung Hee Lee, Jhin Oh Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):66-80.
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Abstract
This study is to investigate risk factor in lung cancer due to smoking and other risk factors by a case-control study. Three hundred and seventy five patients with lung cancer and 750 hospital controls were analyzed. The summary of the results are as followings. 1. The ages of the lung cancer patients ranged from 23 to 76 years for male and from 32 to 73 years for female. The mean age for male and female was 55.0 years and 54.3 years. The distribution of the ages for cases and controls was not statistically significant. 2. The distribution of studied groups by marital status, religion, education level, and occupation showed no difference significantly. 3. In this study 286 of the 375 male cases(76.2%) ever smoked regularly, as compared to 65.5% of controls. The estimated relative risk of lung cancer in cigarette smokers was 4.6. 4. The longer the duration of smoking or the greater the total number of cigarettes consumed, the higher the risk; linear trends were highly significant. 5. The earlier life cases began to smoke, and the more frequently and the more deeply they inhaled, the higher were their risks of developing lung cancer, even after adjusting for sex and duration of cigarette use. Linear trends were significant. Cases who reported cessation of smoking has a decreased risk of lung cancer. 6. The risk of lung cancer was higher among nonfilter smokers and mixed smokers than among filter smokers. 7. Amongst lifelong nonsmokers, passive smoking was not associated with any significant increase in risk of lung cancer. 8. There was an increasing risk of lung cancer with duration of residence in urban areas compared to in rural areas. 9. The largest histologic group of male lung cancers was squamous cell carcinoma(60.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma(18.9%). In female, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent(54.7%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma(22.1%) and small cell carcinoma(16.8%). 10. The percentage of lung cancer of squamous cell carcinoma increased with smoking, whereas adenocarcinoma was most common histologic type among nonsmokers.
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A study on epidemiological pattern of rabies in Korea
Won Chang Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):58-65.
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A study on relationship between serum lipids level, dietary intake and weight for length index (WLI) for middle school children
Hyeo Ja Joung, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):42-57.
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Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between serum lipids level, dietary intake and weight for length Index(WLI) which are cardiovascular risk factors, on 182 middle school children. Information on the general characteristics of the children were collected by questionnaire self recorded, the serum lipids level was measured by the enzyme method, and dietary intake was measured by a 24-hours recall method. All data were analyzed by means of X2-test, Pearson Correlation and Mean. The following findings were obtained from the study: 1. Twenty two subjects out of the 182(12%) turned out to have obesity according to WLI criterion. 2. The correlation between mother’s education, level and WLI was statistically significant, whereas the correlation between other environmental factors and WLI was not statistically significant. 3. The Correlations between nutrient intake and WLI, nutrient intake and serum lipids level were not significant- Serum TG level and WLI, however, showed positive correlation and serum HDLC level and WLI did negative correlation. 4. WLI and TG/PchE ratio, WLI and TG/HDLC ratio, and WLI and PchE/HDLC ratio revealed positive correlation. However, the correlation between WLI and TC/TG ratio was negative. The correlation between WLI and TG/HDLC ratio was stronger than any other indices. 5. Serum TC level and HDLC level, and serum TC level and PchE level were positively correlated, whereas serum TG level and HDLC level was negatively correlated. 6. The correlation between nutrient intake and serum lipids level was not statistically significant.
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Special editions
Korean good clinical products (KGCP) and the prospects of clinical trials in Korea
Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):32-41.
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Ethical consideration in clinical trials
Il Soon Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):27-31.
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Statistical analysis of clinical trials
Hae Hiang Song
Korean J Epidemiol. 1989;11(1):18-26.
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Abstract
The aim of statistical analysis in a randomized clinical trial is the comparison of the benefit of treatment compared to control or other groups. If all other conditions except the treatment are the same for these groups and if the clinical trial is based on the randomized treatment assignment, the comparison is in general straightforward. Chi-square tests or t-tests can be applied appropriately. In a clinical trial the advantages of randomization are numerous and are mentioned in this paper. A few practical methods of randomization are also discussed. Not having used random assignment, the researchers could not easily certify to others the objectivity of the treatment results, no matter how unbiased the assignment may in fact have been. If in fact patients' baseline characteristics and medical conditions, influential in determining the course of disease, are different in two groups, the treatment evaluation should be taken into consideration the adjusted analysis for these covariates. In order to adjust for random allocation disparities the poststratification analysis and the adjustment methods can be adapted. One can also reduce bias and increase precision by modeling the influence of prognostic factors on treatment response. The analysis of variance or the analysis of covariance are excellent for this purpose. If follow-up intervals vary due to different entry of patients into the study, the distribution of survival times in the group should be analyzed. Survival analysis by the actuarial and product-moment methods are mentioned. The differences in the Survival rates in the two groups across time can be tested using Gehan’s test or log-rank test, also known as the Mantel-Haenszel test. The adoption of more complex analysis methods opens the way for far more extensive exploration of and adjustment for the effects of baseline risk factors and the Cox regression model is especially appealing for this purpose. The underlying assumption of the Cox model is discussed.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health