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Young Jun Kim 1 Article
Associations of daily diet-related greenhouse gas emission with chronic diseases incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jee Yeon Hong, Young Jun Kim, Sanghyuk Bae, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;e2023011.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023011    [Accepted]
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Abstract
Objectives
Despite a large contribution of the whole process from food production to dietary consumption to total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is just little and inconsistent evidence on the epidemiological association of daily diet-related GHG emission with chronic disease risk and even all-cause mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis was on the observational epidemiological relationship between daily diet-related GHG emissions and health outcomes including the risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
Methods
All original articles, published in English until May 2022, were identified by searching PubMed, Ovid-EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and google scholar. The extracted data were pooled using both fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses and presented as hazard and risk ratios with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
Results
Finally, 7 cohort studies (21 study arms) were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The GHGs emission of dietary consumption was significantly positively associated with the risk of chronic disease incidence and mortality in both fixed-effects and random-effects models [fixed: 1.04 (1.03; 1.05), random: 1.04 (1.02; 1.06)]. This positive association was robust regardless of how to group daily diet-related GHG emissions. A relatively animal-based diet showed higher GHG emissions. However, there were just a few studies on specific chronic diseases, subgroup analysis showed insignificant results. There was no evidence of publication bias among the studies (Egger’s test: p = 0.79).
Conclusions
In conclusion, a relatively higher GHGs-emission-diet is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality.
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health