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Sukyoung Jung 2 Articles
Higher energy consumption in the evening is associated with increased odds of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from the 2016–2018 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (7 th KNHANES)
Sarang Jeong, Hajoung Lee, Sukyoung Jung, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;e2023087.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI:    [Accepted]
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  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Chrono-nutrition emphasizes meal timing in preventing obesity and metabolic disorders. This study explores the impact of temporal dietary patterns(TDPs) on obesity and metabolic syndrome(MetS) in Korean adults aged 20 to 65 years.
We utilized dynamic time warping method and Kernel k-means clustering to investigate diet quality and the odds ratios(ORs) of obesity and MetS with different TDPs using data from the 7th Korea Nutrition and Health Examination Survey.
Participants were divided into three groups based on relative energy intake over 24 hours. After adjusting for age and gender, Cluster 3(with the highest proportion of energy intake in the evening) had the lowest Healthy Eating Index scores compared to other clusters. Following adjustment for key covariates, Cluster 3 showed the highest values for Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Compared to Cluster 1(with a lower proportion of energy intake in the evening), Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had ORs for obesity of 1.12 (95% Confidence Interval(CI), 0.97–1.30) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03–1.37), respectively. For MetS, the ORs were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08–1.48) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17–1.61) when comparing Cluster 2 and 3 to Cluster 1.
This study reveals that individuals with higher energy intake in the evening have increased odds of obesity and MetS, even after adjusting for major covariates, including age and total energy intake.
Positive association of unhealthy plant-based diets with the incidence of abdominal obesity in Korea: a comparison of baseline, most recent, and cumulative average diets
Sukyoung Jung, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022063.   Published online August 2, 2022
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  • 259 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Different approaches for analyzing repeated dietary measurements may yield differences in the magnitude and interpretation of findings. We aimed to compare 3 dietary measurements (baseline, most recent, and cumulative average) in terms of the association between plant-based diet indices (PDIs) and incident abdominal obesity in Korean adults aged 40-69 years.
This study included 6,054 participants (54% women) free of abdominal obesity (defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) at baseline. As exposures, baseline, most recent, and cumulative average measurements for PDI, healthy-PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) were created. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity.
During 45,818 person-years of follow-up (median, 9 years), we identified 1,778 incident cases of abdominal obesity. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, a higher uPDI was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity in both total and stratified analyses. The findings were consistent across all approaches (Q5 vs. Q1: HRbaseline=1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.98; HRmost recent=1.52; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.78; HRcumulative average=1.76; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.06 in the total set). PDI showed no meaningful association with abdominal obesity risk in any analyses. hPDIaverage had a suggestive inverse association with abdominal obesity risk in men, and hPDIbaseline had a positive association with abdominal obesity risk in women.
Greater adherence to unhealthy plant-based diets may increase the risk of developing abdominal obesity in Korean adults. The findings were generally consistent across all approaches.
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인 유전체역학조사사업의 안성안산코호트 조사에 참여한 40-69세 한국 성인 6,054명을 대상으로 식물성 기반의 식이 지수와 복부비만 간 연관성이 식이 노출 기간(기반, 최근, 누적 노출)에 따라 어떻게 다른지 비교 분석하였다. 건강하지 않은 식물성 기반의 식이 지수 점수가 높을수록 복부비만 발생 위험이 증가하였고, 식이 노출 기간에 관계없이 일관된 결과를 보였다. 식물성 기반의 식이가 반드시 건강에 유익한 것은 아니며, 정제된 곡물, 탄산음료, 사탕 등 간식류를 많이 먹는 식이 패턴은 식물성 기반 식이라 할지라도 복부비만 위험을 증가시킬 수 있으므로 주의가 필요하다.
Key Message
Unhealthy plant-based diets, including refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets and desserts, and salty plant foods, can have a negative effect on abdominal obesity in Korean adults regardless of its exposure duration.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Scoping review of the association of plant-based diet quality with health outcomes
    Richard M. Rosenfeld, Hailey M. Juszczak, Michele A. Wong
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health