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Sukyoung Jung 1 Article
Positive association of unhealthy plant-based diets with the incidence of abdominal obesity in Korea: a comparison of baseline, most recent, and cumulative average diets
Sukyoung Jung, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022063.   Published online August 2, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022063
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Different approaches for analyzing repeated dietary measurements may yield differences in the magnitude and interpretation of findings. We aimed to compare 3 dietary measurements (baseline, most recent, and cumulative average) in terms of the association between plant-based diet indices (PDIs) and incident abdominal obesity in Korean adults aged 40-69 years.
METHODS
This study included 6,054 participants (54% women) free of abdominal obesity (defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) at baseline. As exposures, baseline, most recent, and cumulative average measurements for PDI, healthy-PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) were created. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity.
RESULTS
During 45,818 person-years of follow-up (median, 9 years), we identified 1,778 incident cases of abdominal obesity. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, a higher uPDI was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity in both total and stratified analyses. The findings were consistent across all approaches (Q5 vs. Q1: HRbaseline=1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.98; HRmost recent=1.52; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.78; HRcumulative average=1.76; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.06 in the total set). PDI showed no meaningful association with abdominal obesity risk in any analyses. hPDIaverage had a suggestive inverse association with abdominal obesity risk in men, and hPDIbaseline had a positive association with abdominal obesity risk in women.
CONCLUSIONS
Greater adherence to unhealthy plant-based diets may increase the risk of developing abdominal obesity in Korean adults. The findings were generally consistent across all approaches.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인 유전체역학조사사업의 안성안산코호트 조사에 참여한 40-69세 한국 성인 6,054명을 대상으로 식물성 기반의 식이 지수와 복부비만 간 연관성이 식이 노출 기간(기반, 최근, 누적 노출)에 따라 어떻게 다른지 비교 분석하였다. 건강하지 않은 식물성 기반의 식이 지수 점수가 높을수록 복부비만 발생 위험이 증가하였고, 식이 노출 기간에 관계없이 일관된 결과를 보였다. 식물성 기반의 식이가 반드시 건강에 유익한 것은 아니며, 정제된 곡물, 탄산음료, 사탕 등 간식류를 많이 먹는 식이 패턴은 식물성 기반 식이라 할지라도 복부비만 위험을 증가시킬 수 있으므로 주의가 필요하다.
Key Message
Unhealthy plant-based diets, including refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets and desserts, and salty plant foods, can have a negative effect on abdominal obesity in Korean adults regardless of its exposure duration.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health