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Sanghyuk Bae 5 Articles
Associations of active and passive tobacco exposure with elevated blood pressure in Korean adolescents
Hyerin Park, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Sanghyuk Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024028.   Published online February 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024028
  • 4,117 View
  • 180 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To test the hypothesis that tobacco exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Korean adolescents, and that the association is dose dependent.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were eligible if they were 13-18 years at the time of participation in KNHANES. Tobacco exposure was defined by urine cotinine level. The main outcomes were EBP and hypertension. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.4 with appropriate sampling weights to account for the complex survey design, stratification, and cluster variable.
RESULTS
A total of 2,518 adolescents was included in the analysis, representing 2.5 million Korean adolescents. The mean± standard deviation participant age was 15.3±1.7 years, and 55.3% were male. The number of participants with active tobacco smoke exposure was 283 (11.2%), passive tobacco smoke exposure was 145 (5.8%), and no smoke exposure was 2,090 (83.0%). Analysis of the 2,518 urine-cotinine-verified participants showed that tobacco smoke exposure had a significant effect on EBP: with an odds of elevated blood pressure of 3.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 7.89). The odds of hypertension were 3.61 (95% CI, 1.13 to 11.49) in the active smoking group compared with the no tobacco exposure group after adjustment for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS
It is necessary to present a range of public health plans to reduce tobacco exposure that affects adolescents’ blood pressure, and further research with a larger number of participants using urine cotinine as a biomarker is needed.
Summary
Korean summary
청소년기의 고혈압은 성인기의 다양한 질병을 초래할 수 있는 주요 원인이다. 흡연과 고혈압의 관계에 관한 다수의 연구들이 있으나 상반된 결과들이 보고되었고 국내 청소년의 직 간접적 담배 연기 노출과 혈압과의 연관성은 명확하게 밝혀지지 않았다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 한국 청소년에서 담배 연기 노출과 혈압 상승과의 연관성을 확인해 보고자 하였다. 연구 결과 직접 흡연을 하는 청소년들은 비흡연군에 비하여 3배 이상 혈압이 증가하는 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
Hypertension during adolescence is a leading cause of disease in adults. The relationship between smoking and hypertension has been studied, but findings between studies are conflicting. Nicotine is a known toxin, but the relationship between active and passive smoking and blood pressure in adolescents is not clear. So that we tested and found adolescents in Korea who were active smokers showed over 3-fold increased risk of elevated blood pressure.
Associations of daily diet-related greenhouse gas emissions with the incidence and mortality of chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jee Yeon Hong, Young Jun Kim, Sanghyuk Bae, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023011.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023011
  • 5,092 View
  • 168 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although the entire process extending from food production to dietary consumption makes a large contribution to total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little and inconsistent evidence exists on the epidemiological associations of daily diet-related GHG emissions with chronic disease risk or all-cause mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the observational epidemiological relationship between daily diet-related GHG emissions and health outcomes, including the risk of chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
METHODS
Original articles published in English until May 2022 were identified by searching PubMed, Ovid-Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. The extracted data were pooled using both fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses and presented as hazard and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
In total, 7 cohort studies (21 study arms) were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The GHG emissions of dietary consumption showed a significant positive association with the risk of chronic disease incidence and mortality in both fixed-effects and random-effects models (fixed: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.05; random: RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06). This positive association was robust regardless of how daily diet-related GHG emissions were grouped. More strongly animal- based diets showed higher GHG emissions. However, there were only a few studies on specific chronic diseases, and the subgroup analysis showed insignificant results. There was no evidence of publication bias among the studies (Egger test: p=0.79).
CONCLUSIONS
A higher GHG-emission diet was found to be associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
식이로부터 배출되는 GHG양은 메타분석의 고정 효과 모델과 확률 효과 모델 모두에서 만성 질환 발병률 및 사망 위험과 유의미한 양의 상관 관계를 보여주었습니다. 동물성 식단은 더 높은 GHG 배출량을 나타냈으나, 특정 만성질환에 대한 연구의 수가 적었고 질환 별 하위군 분석에서 유의미한 결과를 보이지 않았습니다. 결론적으로 온실가스 배출량이 많은 식단은 모든 원인으로 인한 사망 위험이 더 큰 것으로 나타났습니다.
Key Message
Daily food consumption contributes a large part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, no review study was conducted. This study is the first review paper that reviews the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from daily diet and chronic disease risk and all-cause mortality. GHG emissions from the daily diet were significantly positively associated with disease risk and mortality. Animal-based diets contributed most to diet-derived GHG emissions. Men tended to have diets with higher GHG emissions compared to women. At times when the response to climate change is urgent, this study can help many policymakers and health officials.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The bounds of meta-analytics and an alternative method
    Ramalingam Shanmugam, Mohammad Tabatabai, Derek Wilus, Karan P Singh
    Epidemiology and Health.2024; : e2024016.     CrossRef
Associations of breastfeeding duration and the total number of children breastfed with self-reported osteoarthritis in Korea women 50 years and older: a cross-sectional study
Dajeong Ham, Sanghyuk Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023044.   Published online April 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023044
  • 3,782 View
  • 104 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, with a higher prevalence among women than men. The present study aimed to examine the associations of breastfeeding duration and the total number of children breastfed with osteoarthritis in Korean women aged 50 years and older.
METHODS
In this cross-sectional study, we used representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, phases 5 through 7 (2010-2018). Our analysis included 10,102 women aged ≥50 years. Osteoarthritis experience was defined as whether a physician had ever diagnosed osteoarthritis. Breastfeeding duration was categorized as 1-6 months, 7-24 months, and ≥25 months. The total number of children breastfed was categorized as 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5. The covariates were health behavior characteristics and risks of diseases (smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, oral contraceptive use, and menopause) as well as socioeconomic characteristics (income, educational level, and occupation). A multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate associations between osteoarthritis and aspects of breastfeeding experience.
RESULTS
Compared to the non-breastfeeding group, the breastfeeding group had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.03) for osteoarthritis. Those who reported breastfeeding for >25 months had an OR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.06).
CONCLUSIONS
The advantages of breastfeeding are already well known, but the present study suggests that women who breastfeed children for a longer time may have a higher risk of osteoarthritis after middle age.
Summary
Korean summary
골관절염은 가장 흔한 관절 질환이며 유병률은 여성에서 더 높다. 본 연구는 국민건강영양조사의 50세 이상 여성 10,130명을 대상으로 모유수유경험과 골관절염의 유병율 사이의 연관성을 분석하였다. 모유 수유의 이점은 이미 잘 알려져 있지만, 모유 수유 기간이 길수록 골관절염에 걸릴 가능성이 더 높음을 관찰하였다.
Key Message
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common disorders in elderly women and identifying risk factors may contribute to screening and early treatment. In the present article, we analyzed the association of breastfeeding and related factors with prevalent osteoarthritis in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The advantages of breastfeeding are already well known, but we observed that the longer the breastfeeding duration was the more likely the woman has osteoarthritis.
Age-specific effects of ozone on pneumonia in Korean children and adolescents: a nationwide time-series study
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, In Gyu Song, Soontae Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022002.   Published online December 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022002
  • 11,843 View
  • 488 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific effects of 8-hour maximum ozone levels on pneumonia in children and adolescents.
METHODS
We performed quasi-Poisson regression analyses for individuals of 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years of age using nationwide time-series data from the Korea (2011-2015). We constructed distributed lag linear models employing a generalized difference-in-differences method and controlling for other air pollutants.
RESULTS
A 10.0-parts per billion increase in 8-hour maximum ozone levels was associated with a higher risk of hospital admissions due to pneumonia at 0-4 (relative risk [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.03) and 5-9 years of age (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08), but not at 10-14 (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04) or 15-19 years of age (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.06). The association between ozone and hospital admissions due to pneumonia was stronger in cool seasons (from November to April) than in warm seasons (from May to October), but was similar between boys and girls.
CONCLUSIONS
Short-term exposure to ozone was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia at 0-4 years and 5-9 years of age, but not at 10-14 years or 15-19 years of age. Our findings can help identify vulnerable periods, determine the target populations for public health interventions, and establish air pollution standards.
Summary
Korean summary
-어린이와 청소년에서 대기오염물질인 오존에 단기 노출되었을 때 폐렴으로 인한 입원 위험이 증가하는지를 건강보험공단 청구자료를 이용하여 구축한 시계열자료로 분석하였다. -0-4세, 5-9세 군에서는 오존 단기 노출 시 폐렴으로 인한 입원 위험이 증가하였으나 10-14세, 15-19세 군에서는 입원 위험 증가가 관찰되지 않았다.
Key Message
• The effects of ozone levels on hospital admissions for pneumonia were evaluated. • We used quasi-Poisson time-series models and a difference-in-differences method. • Ozone levels increased hospital admissions for pneumonia at ages 0–4 and 5–9 years. • Evidence for the effects of ozone levels on pneumonia was not found at older ages.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Challenges of Air Pollution and Health in East Asia
    Xihao Du, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan
    Current Environmental Health Reports.2024; 11(2): 89.     CrossRef
  • Intraday exposure to ambient ozone and emergency department visits among children: a case-crossover study in southern China
    Jiahong Ren, Lifeng Zhu, Yachen Li, Haiyi Li, Qian Hu, Jian Zhu, Qingyan Zhang, Yunquan Zhang
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2023; 30(30): 74853.     CrossRef
Effect modification of consecutive high concentration days on the association between fine particulate matter and mortality: a multi-city study in Korea
Hyungryul Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Hyun-Joo Bae, Soontae Kim, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022052.   Published online June 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022052
  • 8,125 View
  • 323 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although there is substantial evidence for the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) on daily mortality, few epidemiological studies have explored the effect of prolonged continuous exposure to high concentrations of PM<sub>2.5</sub>. This study investigated how the magnitude of the mortality effect of PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure is modified by persistent exposure to high PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations.
METHODS
We analyzed data on the daily mortality count, simulated daily PM<sub>2.5</sub> level, mean daily temperature, and relative humidity level from 7 metropolitan cities from 2006 to 2019. Generalized additive models (GAMs) with quasi-Poisson distribution and random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool city-specific effects. To investigate the effect modification of continuous exposure to prolonged high concentrations, we applied categorical consecutive-day variables to the GAMs as effect modification terms for PM<sub>2.5</sub>.
RESULTS
The mortality risk increased by 0.33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.50), 0.47% (95% CI, -0.09 to 1.04), and 0.26% (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.60) for all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, respectively, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration. The risk of all-cause mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> on the first and fourth consecutive days significantly increased by 0.63% (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.06) and 0.36% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.70), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We found increased risks of all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality related to daily PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure on the day when exposure to high PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations began and when exposure persisted for more than 4 days with concentrations of ≥35 μg/m3. Persistently high PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure had a stronger effect on seniors.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 7개 대도시를 배경으로 수행한 본 시계열 연구를 통하여 2006년부터 2019년까지의 기간 동안에 초미세먼지의 단기 노출이 일별 사망률을 증가시키며, 교호작용모형을 통해 일평균 35 μg/m3 이상의 고농도 지속기간이 처음 시작되는 날과 넷째 지속일에 이러한 사망효과가 커짐을 보고하였다. 이러한 고농도 지속기간의 교호작용은 65세 이상 연령군에서 더욱 두드러졌다.
Key Message
With our Korean multi-city study design from 2006 to 2019, the short-term effects of PM2.5 on mortality were greater when the high PM2.5 concentration duration began during the day and lasted for approximately 4 days, and the elderly may be more affected by persistently high PM2.5.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health