Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health


Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse articles > Author index
Mikyung Ryu 2 Articles
Hand-to-face contact behaviors during indoor activities in daily life among Korean adults: an observational pilot study using videotaping
Hyang Soon Oh, Mikyung Ryu, Youngran Yang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021030.   Published online April 22, 2021
  • 7,818 View
  • 349 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Hand-to-face contact (HFC) is the major route for the self-inoculation of pathogens. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of HFC behaviors among Korean adults during indoor activities.
Thirty participants were enrolled in the study, and 2 hours of videotaped data were collected from each participant. Contact data were recorded by examining the frequency and duration of HFC on the videos. Three training sessions were conducted for 2 readers to ensure the accuracy and reliability of videotape reading. Re-reading and verification of selected video data were performed to confirm intrapersonal and interpersonal validity. Contact exposure (CE) was determined by multiplying the contact frequency (CF) by the contact duration (CD) to quantify the intensity of contact during the observation time (2 hours).
A total of 3,007 HFCs (1,305 mucous membrane contacts and 1,702 non-mucous membrane contacts) were observed for 60 person-hours. The median CF (person/2 hr) of the mucous membranes (eye; 4.0, nose; 15.5, mouth; 16.5) was 39.5/person and the median total CD was 177.0 sec/person. The median CE (frequency-duration/sec/person) was 5,795.0 (mouth: 1,356.0, nose: 600.0, eye: 57.5).
This study showed that the mouth and nose were the most frequent exposure sites for HFC. Avoiding habitual HFC, awareness of self-inoculation by HFC, and vigorous hand hygiene should be strengthened to prevent the spread of infections.
Korean summary
· 얼굴의 가장 빈번한 직접 자가 손접촉 노출은 입과 코에서 발생했습니다. · 접촉 노출량 지표 (contact exposure)는 입과 코에 자가 손접촉을 보다 잘 구별할 수 있습니다. · 습관적인 손-얼굴 접촉을 피하고, 마스크 사용 및 철저한 손위생으로 감염성 질환의 전파를 예방해야 합니다.
Key Message
• Average contact frequency (no./person) and contact duration (sec/person) of hand-to-face contact to the mucous membranes were high on the mouth, nose and then nose. • Contact exposure could differentiate more distinguished the hand contacts to mouth and to nose than contact frequency. • Hand-to face contacts, especially to mouth and then to nose can be the most frequent route of self-inoculation among Korean adults. • Avoiding habitual hand-to-face contacts, mask use, and vigorous hand hygiene should be strengthened as we counter epidemics of transmitting infectious diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • #RedPingüiNO. Impact of a Serious Game to Reduce Facial Self-touches and Prevent Exposure to Pathogens Transmitted via Hands: Quasi-experimental Intervention (Preprint)
    Marta Arévalo-Baeza, Alejandro Viuda-Serrano, Carmen Juan-Llamas, Pablo Sotoca-Orgaz, Iván Asín-Izquierdo
    JMIR Serious Games.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hand-to-Face Contact of Preschoolers during Indoor Activities in Childcare Facilities in the Republic of Korea
    Hyang Soon Oh, Mikyung Ryu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(20): 13282.     CrossRef
Association between Alcohol Intake and Abdominal Obesity among the Korean Population
Mikyung Ryu, Heejin Kimm, Jaeseong Jo, Sun Ju Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010007.   Published online May 19, 2010
  • 14,422 View
  • 110 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Although abdominal obesity has been reported to be highly related with alcohol intake, the results are still inconclusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the association between alcohol and abdominal obesity among the Korean population.


This study included 8,603 participants (men: 5,195, women: 3,408) aged 30 to 87 who visited the health promotion centers in Seoul for routine health examinations from April, 2006 to June, 2007. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women in accordance with the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. For ever drinkers, total alcohol consumption in grams was classified into four groups (group 1, non-drinkers; group 2, 1-10 g of alcohol per day; group 3, 11-20 g of alcohol per day; and group 4, over 20 g of alcohol per day).


The mean age of the study population was 45.4 yr old (men) and 45.3 yr (women). The average waist circumference was 85.3 cm in men and 75.3 cm in women. A high alcohol intake was associated with high waist circumference in both genders. In multivariate analysis, the group of men and women drinkers consuming >20 g in a day had a large waist circumference compared with men and women non-drinkers.


This study showed that a high alcohol intake was related to high waist circumference. Such association remained independently even after adjustment for smoking, which is strongly related to abdominal obesity.

Korean summary
Key Message


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dietary Intervention in Glaucoma
    Syed Shoeb Ahmad, Syed Mohammed Bilal, Anam Tariq, Aliya Rashid
    US Ophthalmic Review.2022; 16(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Interaction effect between overweight/obesity and alcohol consumption on hypertension risk in China: a longitudinal study
    Jiaru Sun, Xiaoqin Wang, Paul D Terry, Xiaohan Ren, Zhaozhao Hui, Shuangyan Lei, Caihua Wang, Mingxu Wang
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(7): e061261.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Obesity and Lifestyle Factors in Young Korean Women: the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016
    Jeon Won Kwak, Chan Hee Jeon, Min Ho Kwak, Jeong Hyeon Kim, Yong Soon Park
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2019; 19(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of overweight/obesity in a Brazilian cohort after 13 years of follow-up
    Ludimila Garcia Souza, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Ana Carolina Rezende, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Humberto Graner Moreira, Naiana Borges Perillo, Samanta Garcia de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de Souza, Ymara Cássia Luciana Araújo, Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixo
    Nutrition Journal.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea
    Yunji Hwang, Kyu Eun Lee, Elisabete Weiderpass, Young Joo Park, Young Jun Chai, Hyungju Kwon, Do Joon Park, BeLong Cho, Ho-Chun Choi, Daehee Kang, Sue K. Park, Li Wang
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(3): e0151562.     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle Risk Factors of General and Abdominal Obesity in Students of the School of Medicine and Health Science of the University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
    Victor Mogre, Rauf Nyaba, Samuel Aleyira
    ISRN Obesity.2014; 2014: 1.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with central overweight and obesity in students attending the University for Development Studies in Tamale, Ghana: a cross-sectional study
    V. Mogre, S. Aleyira, R. Nyaba
    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2014; 27(2): 69.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Incidence of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in South Korea from 2006–2009: An Ecological Study
    Jin-Won Kwon, Hyun Joo Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Ji Eun Choi, Jong Hee Kim, Na Rae Lee, Jin Seub Hwang, Eun Ju Lee
    World Neurosurgery.2013; 79(3-4): 499.     CrossRef
  • Adiponectin negatively correlates with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver dysfunction: Health check-up study of Japanese men
    Mina Hamano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Shinichi Kiso, Kunimaro Furuta, Takashi Kizu, Norihiro Chatani, Mayumi Egawa, Takayo Takemura, Hisao Ezaki, Yuichi Yoshida, Kenji Watabe, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Miyuki Umeda, Aiko Furubayashi, Kazuo Kinoshita, Osamu Kishida, T
    Hepatology Research.2013; 43(3): 238.     CrossRef
  • Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Body Weight
    C. Dumesnil, L. Dauchet, J.B. Ruidavets, A. Bingham, D. Arveiler, J. Ferrières, P. Ducimetière, B. Haas, V. Bongard, A. Wagner, P. Amouyel, J. Dallongeville
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.2013; 62(2): 91.     CrossRef
  • Rupture rate for patients with untreated unruptured intracranial aneurysms in South Korea during 2006–2009
    Eun Ju Lee, Hyun Joo Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Ji Eun Choi, Jong Hee Kim, Na Rae Lee, Jin Seub Hwang, Jin-Won Kwon
    Journal of Neurosurgery.2012; 117(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • Global Gender Disparities in Obesity: A Review
    Rebecca Kanter, Benjamin Caballero
    Advances in Nutrition.2012; 3(4): 491.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between obesity, alcohol consumption, and physical activity of male office workers in South Korea
    Oksoo Kim, Hae Ok Jeon
    Nursing & Health Sciences.2011; 13(4): 457.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health