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Mehmet Onur Kaya 1 Article
The role of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Mehmet Onur Kaya, Esra Pamukçu, Burkay Yakar
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021074.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021074
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although vaccination has started, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a continuing threat to public health. Therefore, in addition to vaccination, the use of supplements to support the immune system may be important. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence on the possible effect of low serum vitamin D levels (25[OH]D<20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L) on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.
METHODS
We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect without any language restrictions for articles published between January 1 and December 15, 2020. We performed 3 meta-analyses (called vitamin D and COVID-19 infection meta-analysis [D-CIMA], vitamin D and COVID-19 severity meta-analysis [D-CSMA], and vitamin D and COV ID-19 mortality meta-analysis [D-CMMA] for COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality, respectively) to combine odds ratio values according to laboratory measurement units for vitamin D and the measured serum 25(OH)D level.
RESULTS
Twenty-one eligible studies were found to be relevant to the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 infection/outcomes (n=205,869). The D-CIMA meta-analysis showed that individuals with low serum vitamin D levels were 1.64 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.04; p<0.001) more likely to contract COVID-19. The D-CSMA meta-analysis showed that people with serum 25(OH)D levels below 20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L were 2.42 times (95% CI, 1.13 to 5.18; p=0.022) more likely to have severe COVID-19. The D-CMMA meta-analysis showed that low vitamin D levels had no effect on COVID-19 mortality (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 5.06, p=0.390).
CONCLUSIONS
According to our results, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection and the likelihood of severe disease. Therefore, we recommend vitamin D supplementation to prevent COVID-19 and its negative outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Although vaccination has started, it seems that Covid-19 will continue to threaten public health for a long time. In addition to the vaccine, the use of supplements to support the immune system may also be important. The purpose of this study is to indicate the possible effect of low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL or 50nmol/L) on the Covid-19 infection and outcomes. According to our remarkable results, vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of Covid-19 infection and the potential for the severity of the disease. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should be added to prevention and treatment protocols for Covid-19 disease.

Citations

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