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Kil Hun Kim 1 Article
The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis
Kil Hun Kim, Jin-Ho Chun, Hae Sook Sohn
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015019.   Published online April 16, 2015
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index.
The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong) in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors.
The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females), while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index.
The study confirmed that the happiness index of community residents was influenced by not only personal aspects but also various regional characteristics. To increase the happiness index, interests at both personal and regional levels, as well as community emphasis on creating social rapport and engaging in selective efforts, are needed in vulnerable regions with relatively high deprivation index.
Korean summary
본 연구는 행복지수의 연구에 있어서 개인수준과 지역수준까지 고려한 연구이다. 지역수준의 영향력을 보다 정확하게 확인하기 위해 읍면동 단위까지 박탈지수를 산출하여 분석하였으며, 지역수준의 영향이 있음을 확인하였다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Social Connection and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Happiness in Urban Older Adults in China: A Cross-Sectional Study With a Community Sample
    Jianghong Liu, Sini Li, Xuhan Yan, Junxin Li, Qiuzi Sun, Hua Mei, Hengyi Rao
    Research in Gerontological Nursing.2023; 16(3): 147.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Trend in the Association Between Disaster Damage and Happiness Before and After the Great East Japan Earthquake
    Masato Nagai, Hiroyuki Hikichi, Koichiro Shiba, Katsunori Kondo, Ichiro Kawachi, Jun Aida
    International Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the accessibility and its equity of the national public-private mix program for tuberculosis in Korea: a multilevel analysis
    Hyunjin Son, Changhoon Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 45: e2023002.     CrossRef

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