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Jooyoung Park 2 Articles
Experiences of and barriers to transition-related healthcare among Korean transgender adults: focus on gender identity disorder diagnosis, hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery
Hyemin Lee, Jooyoung Park, Bokyoung Choi, Horim Yi, Seung-Sup Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018005.   Published online February 27, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018005
  • 25,816 View
  • 395 Download
  • 21 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Transgender people may encounter barriers to transition-related healthcare services. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of transition-related healthcare and barriers to those procedures among transgender adults in Korea.
METHODS
In 2017, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 278 transgender adults, which named Rainbow Connection Project II, in Korea. We assessed the prevalence of transition-related healthcare, including gender identity disorder (GID) diagnosis, hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. To understand the barriers to those procedures, we also asked participants for their reasons for not receiving each procedure. Further, this study examined their experiences of and the reasons for using non-prescribed hormone medications.
RESULTS
Of transgender people participated in the survey, 91.0% (n=253/278) were diagnosed with GID, 88.0% (n=243/276) received hormone therapy, and 42.4% (n=115/271) have had any kind of sex reassignment surgery. Cost was the most common barrier to transition-related healthcare among Korean transgender adults. Other common barriers were identified as follows: negative experiences in healthcare settings, lack of specialized healthcare professionals and facilities, and social stigma against transgender people. Among those who had taken hormone medications, 25.1% (n=61/243) reported that they had ever purchased them without a prescription.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that barriers to transition-related healthcare exist in Korea and constrain transgender individuals’ safe access to the needed healthcare. Institutional interventions are strongly recommended to improve access to transition-related healthcare. These interventions include provision of programs to train Korean healthcare professionals and expansion of national health insurance to include these procedures.
Summary
Korean summary
- 본 연구는 한국 성인 트랜스젠더의 정신과진단, 호르몬요법, 성전환수술의 경험과 그 과정에서 마주하는 장벽에 대해 파악하고자 했다. 전체 트랜스젠더 중 성주체성장애 진단을 받은 참여자는 91.0%(N=253/278), 호르몬요법을 현재 받고 있거나 과거에 받은 경험이 있는 참여자는 88.0%(N=243/276), 한 가지 종류 이상 성전환수술을 받은 참여자는 42.4%(N=115/271)였다. 트랜스젠더가 의료적 트랜지션 과정에서 경험하는 가장 큰 장벽으로는 의료적 조치에 소요되는 비용인 것으로 밝혀졌다.
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Does Discrimination Affect Whether Transgender People Avoid or Delay Healthcare?: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Survey in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Ji-Hwan Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2022; 24(1): 170.     CrossRef
  • Gender Identity Change Efforts Are Associated with Depression, Panic Disorder, and Suicide Attempts in South Korean Transgender Adults
    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Arjee J. Restar, Sungsub Choo, Ranyeong Kim, Yun-Jung Eom, Horim Yi, Seung-Sup Kim
    Transgender Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Restriction of Access to Healthcare and Discrimination of Individuals of Sexual and Gender Minority: An Analysis of Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights from an Ethical Perspective
    Tobias Skuban, Marcin Orzechowski, Florian Steger
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(5): 2650.     CrossRef
  • Study protocol: navigating access to gender care in Ireland—a mixed-method study on the experiences of transgender and non-binary youth
    Seán Kearns, Catherine Houghton, Donal O’Shea, Karl Neff
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(3): e052030.     CrossRef
  • Korean healthcare providers’ attitude, knowledge, and behaviors regarding sexual orientation and gender identity: a cross-sectional survey
    YunHui An, ChaeWeon Chung
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2022; 28(1): 65.     CrossRef
  • Discrimination keeps transgender people awake at night: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of 583 transgender adults in South Korea
    Yun-Jung Eom, Hyemin Lee, Ranyeong Kim, Sungsub Choo, Horim Yi, Seung-Sup Kim
    Sleep Health.2022; 8(6): 580.     CrossRef
  • Heterogeneity in the Desire to Undergo Various Gender-Affirming Medical Interventions Among Transgender People in Hong Kong: Findings from a Community-Driven Survey and Implications for the Legal Gender Recognition Debate
    Yiu Tung Suen, Randolph C. H. Chan, Eliz Miu Yin Wong
    Archives of Sexual Behavior.2022; 51(7): 3613.     CrossRef
  • Fertility Preservation and Reproductive Potential in Transgender and Gender Fluid Population
    Ji Young Choi, Tae Jin Kim
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(9): 2279.     CrossRef
  • A Review of Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy for Transgender and Gender Diverse Adults in South Korea
    Jeong-Won OH, Yeoul Yun, Eun Sil Lee
    Journal of Menopausal Medicine.2022; 28(3): 92.     CrossRef
  • Unpacking the Roles of Religion and Partisanship on Support for Same-Sex Marriage: Evidence from South Korea
    Timothy S Rich, Andi Dahmer, Isabel Eliassen
    Journal of Asian and African Studies.2021; 56(2): 364.     CrossRef
  • Attitudes Toward Transgender People Among Medical Students in South Korea
    Sa Ra Lee, Min-A Kim, Mun Nyeong Choi, Suyeon Park, Jaehyun Cho, Chulmin Lee, Eun Sil Lee
    Sexual Medicine.2021; 9(1): 100278.     CrossRef
  • Anti-Androgenic Effects Comparison Between Cyproterone Acetate and Spironolactone in Transgender Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Supanat Burinkul, Krasean Panyakhamlerd, Ammarin Suwan, Punkavee Tuntiviriyapun, Sorawit Wainipitapong
    The Journal of Sexual Medicine.2021; 18(7): 1299.     CrossRef
  • Transgender Adults' Public Bathroom-Related Stressors and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Horim Yi, G. Nic Rider, Don Operario, Sungsub Choo, Ranyeong Kim, Yun-Jung Eom, Seung-Sup Kim
    LGBT Health.2021; 8(7): 486.     CrossRef
  • Experiences of transgender and non-binary youth accessing gender-affirming care: A systematic review and meta-ethnography
    Seán Kearns, Thilo Kroll, Donal O‘Shea, Karl Neff, Michelle Torok
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(9): e0257194.     CrossRef
  • Transgender-specific COVID-19-related stressors and their association with depressive symptoms among transgender adults: A nationwide cross-sectional survey in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Arjee J. Restar, Don Operario, Sungsub Choo, Carl G. Streed Jr, Horim Yi, Ranyeong Kim, Yun-Jung Eom, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal of Transgender Health.2021; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Fertility Preservation for Transgender Individuals
    Alessandra J. Ainsworth, Megan Allyse, Zaraq Khan
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings.2020; 95(4): 784.     CrossRef
  • Health Disparities Among Transgender Adults in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Don Operario, Jacob J. van den Berg, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2020; 32(2-3): 103.     CrossRef
  • Internalized transphobia and mental health among transgender adults: A nationwide cross-sectional survey in South Korea
    Hyemin Lee, Kevin K. Tomita, Janice M. Habarth, Don Operario, Horim Yi, Sungsub Choo, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal of Transgender Health.2020; 21(2): 182.     CrossRef
  • Gender affirmative care of transgender people: a single center's experience in Korea
    Hyun Hye Lim, Yun Ha Jang, Gyu Yeon Choi, Jeong Jae Lee, Eun Sil Lee
    Obstetrics & Gynecology Science.2019; 62(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Estradiol Therapy on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Transgender Women After Gender-Affirming Related Gonadectomy
    Maiko A. Schneider, Poli M. Spritzer, Luciano Minuzzi, Benicio N. Frey, Sabrina K. Syan, Tayane M. Fighera, Karine Schwarz, Ângelo B. Costa, Dhiordan C. da Silva, Cláudia C. G. Garcia, Anna M. V. Fontanari, André G. Real, Maurício Anes, Juliana U. Castan,
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Health Needs of Trans and Gender Diverse Adults in Australia: A Qualitative Analysis of a National Community Survey
    Sav Zwickl, Alex Wong, Ingrid Bretherton, Max Rainier, Daria Chetcuti, Jeffrey D. Zajac, Ada S. Cheung
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(24): 5088.     CrossRef
Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I
Horim Yi, Hyemin Lee, Jooyoung Park, Bokyoung Choi, Seung-Sup Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017046.   Published online October 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017046
  • 47,283 View
  • 325 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities.
METHODS
The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women).
RESULTS
Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 만 19세 이상의 한국 성인 동성애자와 양성애자를 대상으로 이들의 건강상태에 대한 설문조사를 시행하고, 수집한 자료를 분석하여 동성애자·양성애자의 건강불평등 실태를 파악하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적은 자가평가건강, 정신건강(우울, 자살생각 및 자살시도), 신체적 건강(근골격계 통증) 및 건강관련행동(흡연율, 위험음주율)을 포함하여 다양한 측면에서 한국 성인 동성애자·양성애자와 일반인구집단의 건강수준을 비교하는 것이다.
Key Message

Citations

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  • Experiences of conflict, non-acceptance and discrimination are associated with poor mental well-being amongst LGBTQ-identified individuals in Singapore
    Gerard W. Toh, Wee Ling Koh, Jack Ho, Jackson Chia, Ad Maulod, Irene Tirtajana, Peter Yang, Mathia Lee
    Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Psychology & Sexuality.2022; 13(5): 1214.     CrossRef
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  • Association between Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among 2,162 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in South Korea: Does Community Connectedness Modify the Association?
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    Journal of Homosexuality.2021; 68(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of 12-month mental and substance use disorders in sexual minority college students in Mexico
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  • Sexual Orientation Change Efforts, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidality Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in South Korea
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    LGBT Health.2021; 8(6): 427.     CrossRef
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    AIMS Public Health.2021; 8(4): 636.     CrossRef
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    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2020; 32(2-3): 103.     CrossRef
  • Internalized transphobia and mental health among transgender adults: A nationwide cross-sectional survey in South Korea
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    International Journal of Transgender Health.2020; 21(2): 182.     CrossRef
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health