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Im Goung Yun 2 Articles
Epidemiologic Characteristics of the Pneumoconiosis Patients in Manufacturing Industries.
Won Chul Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim, Kyung Jae Lee, Se Yong Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Young Gyu Phee, Hyun Wook Kim, Jung Wan Koo, Young Lim, Im Goung Yun
Korean J Epidemiol. 1998;20(1):141-153.
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Abstract
Pneumoconiosis was the first reported occupational disease in Korea and was the most common one until 1990. In the past, most pneumoconiosis patients were found among underground workers in various mines. Recently this occupational disease has increasingly affected workers in manufacturing industries such as ship building, briquette, glass, foundry industries, and so on. In order to investigate the scale of pneumoconiosis in manufacturing industries, we evaluated the detailed medical examination records and insurance deliberation data from 1989 until 1994. Information about work history, medical history, and exposure dust type were collected for each member of the study population. All chest X-rays were interpreted and classified using the International Labor Organization(ILO) scale by three radiologist who have had extensive experience evaluation pneumoconiosis. For the calculation of the incidence rate of manufacturing pneumoconiosis, we analyzed the Specific Health Examination data and estimated the population at risk as a denominator of the incidence rate. We divided manufacturing industry into 9 subclasses by industrial classification and estimated the incidence rate of pneumoconiosis per 100,000 workers at risk respectively. The results were as follows, 1. 485 workers were newly diagnosed with pneumoconiosis during 6 years from 1989 to 1994. 482 workers had radiographs consistent with simple pneumoconiosis and three with progressive massive fibrosis. Among those with radiographs consistent with simple pneumoconiosis, 395 workers(81.4%) had category 1 profusion, 76 workers(15.7%) had category 2 profusion and 11 workers(2.3%) had category 3 profusion. 2. Almost all of them were male(97.9%) and their average age was 48.3 uears. Manufacturing pneumoconiosis patients were more common in their forties and fifties. 3. The average duration of dust exposure required for the occurrence of pneumoconiosis was 13.5 years. In the case of metal products manufacturing which is mostly related to welding, the average duration of dust exposure was 12.0 years. It was slightly shorter than other manufacturing industries. The average duration of dust exposure required for the occurrence of pneumoconiosis seemed to be shorter in welding operators, even though the welders lung has a weak tissue reaction and the condition is reversible. 4. According to the Industrial classification, 299 cases(61.6%) were found in workers of non-metal mineral products manufacturing, and 56 cases(11.5%) in basic metals industry. 5. The average annual incidence rate of pneumoconiosis in manufacturing industries from 1990 to 1994 was 56.6 per 100,000 workers at risk. On sub-classification, the average annual incidence rate of pneumoconiosis in non-metal mineral products manufacturing industry was the highest among them, showing 479 per 100,000 workers at risk. 6. Radiologic prevalence rate of tuberculosis in these cases was 6.6%. 7. X-ray category profusion in newly diagnosed manufacturing pneumoconiosis varied according to sub-classification. The proportion of category 1 profusion in metal products manufacturing is higher than that in non-metal mineral products manufacturing. 8. The type pattern of small round opacities varied according to sub-classification in manufacturing industry. In non-metal mineral products manufacturing, the small round opacity were observed 25.9% cases with p type, 72.1% with q type and 2.0% with r type respectively. But in metal products manufacturing, the small round opacity were observed 51.4% cases with p type and 48.6% with q type respectively. The cause might be that the exposed dust is different according to job. 9. The type pattern of small round opacities varied according to dust type. Metal dusts showed similar radiologic shape to the coal dusts, but welding fume showed more frequent p type(60.3%) and less frequent q type(377%). rock dust showed less frequent p types(18.3%) and more frequent q types(75.3%). Since the incidence rate of non-metal manufacturing workers showed higher rate than other manufacturing industry, Preventive measures and health care education should be carefully carried out in these workers.
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Problems and Suggestions for Improvement in Epidemiological Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis in Korea.
Im Goung Yun, Young Lim, Won Chul Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Hyeong Woo Yim
Korean J Epidemiol. 1996;18(2):131-141.
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Abstract
Pneumoconisosis was the first reported occupational disease in korea and was the most common occupational disease until 1990. Nowadays pneumoconiosis is the second most common occupational disease which accounts for more than at least 40% of all the occupational diseases in Korea. Many studies have been carried out in the prevalence rate, incidence rate, and risk factors assessment of pneumoconiosis. Workers exposed to dust used to take health examination once annually by the Industrial Safety and Health Act(1981). The number of coal workers has steadily decreased due to coal rationalization projects which have been strongly driven by the government since 1988 and the occupational environment has been improving. So, the incidence rate of pneumoconiosis will probably be lower in the future. But a disease control system administed for patient control and compensation, which is not involved in epidemiologic studies may not figure out the prevalence rate, incidence rate, mortality rate and the extent of severity of pneumoconiosis. Several problems and expected solutions are mentioned here as follows: 1. workers exposed to dust and pneumoconiosis patients are under government control, but the retired workers are not. Since we evaluate only visiting retired workers, we don't know exactly the current status and whole scale of the retired workers. If possible, the construction of cohort in all the retired workers is needed. 2. Since most of pneumoconiosis patients retired from the work and had changed their job, it is difficult to figure out the prevalence rate of pneumoconiosis just depending on the annual health exam for those workers at risk. So, systemic control for all pneumoconiosis patients is needed. 3. It is difficult to diagnose the onset of pneumoconiosis. We make a decision the time when the patient is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis on its onset. It is difficult to estimate it, especially in the case of retired workers because we can evaluate only persons with respiratory symptoms. The solution of such a problem is construction of cohort in all of the retired workers. 4. Because the patients who died outside of hospital don't seem to be reported, the mortality rate of pneumoconiosis is underestimated. So, systemic control and follow-up observation for all pneumoconiosis patients is needed. 5. A definite severity classification criteria for pneumoconiosis hasn't been established in Korea. We should try to make one. 6. Since workers who had exposed to dust in various mines at least 1 yr are subject to pneumoconiosis laws, workers easily don't report their full dust exposure history. Therefore we can't obtain the exact lifetime dust exposure from administrative data. We should try to make basic raw data of whole dust exposure in workers. It's concluded that the construction of cohort in workers who are or were exposed to dust in various mines is required and epidemiologic study of pneumoconiosis should be carried out with the administrative control of pneumoconiosis side by side. With the database of these materials, we can speculate and devise the measure for the further affecting subjects who are presumed to be most common in manufacturing industries.
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