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Hyun Ja Kim 2 Articles
Methodological issues in estimating sodium intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyun Ja Kim, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014033.   Published online November 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014033
  • 14,936 View
  • 172 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
For policy goal setting, efficacy evaluations, and the development of related programs for reducing sodium intake, it is essential to accurately identify the amount of sodium intake in South Korea and constantly monitor its trends. The present study aimed to identify the status of sodium intake in South Korea and to review the methods and their validity for estimating sodium intake in each country; through this, we aim to determine more accurate methods for determining sodium intake and to monitor the trend in sodium intake for Korean citizens in the future. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to estimate daily sodium intake, the average daily sodium intake among Koreans was 4,546 mg (men, 5,212 mg; women, 3,868 mg). In addition to the nutrition survey that uses the 24-hour dietary recall method, sodium intake can also be calculated from the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine, 8-hour overnight urine, and spot urine samples. Although KNHANES uses the 24-hour dietary recall method to estimate the sodium intake, the 24-hour dietary recall method has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately determine the amount of sodium intake owing to its unique characteristics of the research method and in the processing of data. Although measuring the amount of sodium excreted in 24-hour urine is known to be the most accurate method, because collecting 24-hour urine from the general population is difficult, using spot urine samples to estimate sodium intake has been suggested to be useful for examining the trend of sodium intake in the general population. Therefore, we planned to conduct a study for estimating of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine and 8-hour overnight urine samples and testing the validity among subsamples in the KNHANES. Based on this result, we will adopt the most appropriate urine collection method for estimating population sodium intake in South Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구에서는 나트륨 섭취량 조사방법과 각 조사방법의 타당성을 고찰하여 나트륨 섭취량과 추이를 보다 정확하게 파악할 수 있는 방법을 모색해보고자 하였다. 국민건강영양조사에서는 24시간 회상법을 이용하여 우리나라 국민의 나트륨 섭취량을 산출하고 있으나, 정확성과 추이 비교에 제한점을 가지므로 소변을 이용하여 나트륨 섭취량을 추정하는 방법에 대한 검토가 필요하다. 이에, 국민건강영양조사의 일부 대상자에서 단회뇨, 야간뇨, 24시간 소변을 수집∙이용하여 24시간 소변 나트륨 배설량을 추정하는 식을 개발하고 그 타당도를 검증하는 연구를 수행하여 가장 적절한 소변 수집 방법을 국민건강영양조사에 도입할 계획이다.
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Intake of Ultra-Processed Foods and Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease: The Health Examinees Study
    Anthony Kityo, Sang-Ah Lee
    Nutrients.2022; 14(17): 3548.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of gastric cancer in Korea
    Kwang-Pil Ko
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2019; 62(8): 398.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Korea
    Si-Hyuck Kang, Sun-Hwa Kim, Jun Hwan Cho, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Seung-Sik Hwang, Hae-Young Lee, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Cheol-Ho Kim
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults
    Adelais Athanasatou, Aikaterini Kandyliari, Olga Malisova, Alex Pepa, Maria Kapsokefalou
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High sodium intake and sodium to potassium ratio may be linked to subsequent increase in vascular damage in adults aged 40 years and older: the Korean multi-rural communities cohort (MRCohort)
    Sukyoung Jung, Mi Kyung Kim, Jinho Shin, Bo Youl Choi, Young-Hoon Lee, Dong Hoon Shin, Min-Ho Shin
    European Journal of Nutrition.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sodium Intake Estimated from Spot Urine Samples and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Young Gyu Cho
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2017; 38(4): 171.     CrossRef
  • Stomach Cancer Disparity among Korean Americans by Tumor Characteristics: Comparison with Non-Hispanic Whites, Japanese Americans, South Koreans, and Japanese
    Eunjung Lee, Lihua Liu, Juanjuan Zhang, Mariana C. Stern, Afsaneh Barzi, Amie Hwang, Andre E. Kim, Ann S. Hamilton, Anna H. Wu, Dennis Deapen
    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2017; 26(4): 587.     CrossRef
  • Salt Intakes, Knowledge, and Behavior in Samoa: Monitoring Salt‐Consumption Patterns Through the World Health Organization's Surveillance of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors ( STEPS )
    Jacqui Webster, Sarah Asi Faletoese Su'a, Merina Ieremia, Severine Bompoint, Claire Johnson, Gavin Faeamani, Miraneta Vaiaso, Wendy Snowdon, Mary‐Anne Land, Kathy Trieu, Satu Viali, Marj Moodie, Colin Bell, Bruce Neal, Mark Woodward
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2016; 18(9): 884.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion
    Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
    Medicine.2016; 95(9): e2864.     CrossRef
  • The Use and Interpretation of Sodium Concentrations in Casual (Spot) Urine Collections for Population Surveillance and Partitioning of Dietary Iodine Intake Sources
    Joel Conkle, Frits van der Haar
    Nutrients.2016; 9(1): 7.     CrossRef
Normal Value for Serum Homocysteine and the Prevalence of Hyperhomocysteinemia in a Rural Population.
Jeong Uk Kim, Hyun Ja Kim, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(1):100-109.   Published online June 30, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.1.100
  • 63,949 View
  • 28 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
Homocysteine is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its blood levels are influenced by several factors such as race, diet, and lifestyle, so on. Considering these factors, the normal value for total homocysteine has not been determined in Korea. The objective of this study is to establish the normal value for serum total homocysteine and elucidate the prevalence rate of hyperhomocysteinemia by gender and age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Among the participants of a community-based cohort study conducted in Yangpyeong province, 889 subjects were measured the biochemical analytes including homocysteine. Those who had the medical histories of angina, myocardial infarction and/orstroke, those who had low levels of folate and/or vitamin B12 and those who had high creatinine level were excluded. Finally, 506 subjects were selected as the reference population. A normal value was established with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A2 protocol.
RESULTS
Homocysteine concentrations of total 889 population and 506 reference population were 10.3+/-5.7 micromol/L (1.9 ~ 93.9 micromol/L) and 8.8+/-2.5 micromol/L (4.3 ~ 21.4 micromol/L), respectively. Homocysteine level was significantly higher in men compared to women (P<0.001) and was significantly increased with age. Normal values were 6.7~15.3micromol/L for men and 5.2~12.7 micromol/L for women. With the normal values, the prevalence rates of hyperhomocysteinemia were 13.3% for men and 8.5% for women in total 889 population. The prevalence rate was highest for individuals aged 60 years or older.
CONCLUSIONS
These data on homocysteine concentrations are similar to from different countries. The established normal value might be used to evaluate quantitatively the risk for hyperhomocysteinemia.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Major Determinants of Serum Homocysteine Concentrations in a Korean Population
    Hyun Ja Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Jeong Uk Kim, Hun Young Ha, Bo Youl Choi
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2010; 25(4): 509.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Related Factors in a Community-based Health Examination Survey: A Cross-sectional Study
    Soo Jeong Kim, Kyung Sook Lim, Mi Sook Song, Yeonji Kang, Soon Young Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(5): 337.     CrossRef

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