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Hyojung Lee 2 Articles
The age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 79 countries: a cross-sectional comparison and their correlations with associated factors
Dongui Hong, Sohyae Lee, Yoon-Jung Choi, Sungji Moon, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Min Cho, Hyojung Lee, Sukhong Min, Hyeree Park, Seokyung Hahn, Ji-Yeob Choi, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021061.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021061
  • 13,869 View
  • 304 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, crude incidence and mortality rates have been widely reported; however, age-standardized rates are more suitable for comparisons. In this study, we estimated and compared the age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates (CFRs) among countries and investigated the relationship between these rates and factors associated with healthcare resources: gross domestic product per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population.
METHODS
The incidence, mortality, and CFRs of 79 countries were age-standardized using the World Health Organization standard population. The rates for persons 60 years or older were also calculated. The relationships among the rates were analysed using trend lines and coefficients of determination (R2). Pearson correlation coefficients between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were calculated.
RESULTS
The countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and CFRs were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively. The R2 between the incidence and mortality rates was 0.852 for all ages and 0.945 for those 60 years or older. The healthcare resources-related factors were associated positively with incidence rates and negatively with CFRs, with weaker correlations among the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
Compared to age-standardized rates, crude rates showed greater variation among countries. Medical resources may be important in preventing COVID-19-related deaths; however, considering the small variation in fatality among the elderly, preventive measures such as vaccination are more important, especially for the elderly population, to minimize the mortality rates.
Summary
Korean summary
국가별 발생률, 사망률, 치명률을 WHO 표준 인구로 연령표준화하였고, 의료자원과 관계된 지표와의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 2021년 4월 6일 기준, 연령표준화 발생률, 사망률, 치명률이 가장 높은 나라는 각각 체코 (10만명당 14,253명), 멕시코 (10만명당 182명), 멕시코 (6.7%)이며, 60세 이상 노인은 사망률과 치명률이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 1인당GDP, 인구당 의사 수, 인구당 병상 수는 발생률과 양의 상관관계가, 치명률과는 음의 상관관계가 있었고 노인에게서는 상관관계가 약하게 나타났다. 코로나바이러스감염증-19로 인한 피해를 최소화하기 위해서 의료자원의 투입과 더불어 노인의 감염예방이 중요할 것이다.
Key Message
The incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates of 79 countries were age-standardized using the WHO standard population. The correlations between the rates and the healthcare resource-related factors were investigated. As of April 6, 2021, the countries with the highest age-standardized incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates were Czechia (14,253 cases/100,000), Mexico (182 deaths/100,000), and Mexico (6.7%), respectively; the mortality and case fatality rates were higher among the elderly. GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per population, and number of doctors per population were associated positively with incidence rate, and negatively with case fatality rates: the correlations were weaker among the elderly. To minimize the burden caused by COVID-19, preventing the elderly from infection is important as well as supply of medical resources.

Citations

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  • Rapid establishment of a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Mexico city during a public health crisis
    Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rafael Ricardo Valdez-Vázquez, Julieta Lomelín-Gascón, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Luis Alberto Martinez-Juarez, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón
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    Robert Tucker Omberg, Alex Tabarrok
    Oxford Review of Economic Policy.2022; 38(4): 851.     CrossRef
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    Yongmoon Kim, Bryan Inho Kim, Sangwoo Tak
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(6): 424.     CrossRef
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    Y. Bodryzlova, A. J. Lemieux, A. Crocker
    Victims & Offenders.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
Epidemiological characteristics of and containment measures for COVID-19 in Busan, Korea
Hyunjin Son, Hyojung Lee, Miyoung Lee, Youngduck Eun, Kyounghee Park, Seungjin Kim, Wonseo Park, Sora Kwon, Byoungseon Ahn, Dongkeun Kim, Changhoon Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020035.   Published online June 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020035
  • 13,118 View
  • 511 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Objectives
To describe and evaluate epidemiological investigation results and containment measures implemented in Busan, where 108 cases were confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between February 21, 2020 and March 24, 2020.
Methods
Any individual who tested positive for COVID-19 was classified as a confirmed case. Measures were taken to identify the source of infection and trace and quarantine contacts. Serial intervals were estimated and the effective reproduction number was computed.
Results
Of the total 18,303 COVID-19 tests performed between January 16, 2020 and March 24, 2020 in Busan, 108 yielded positive results (positive test rate, 0.6%). All confirmed cases were placed in isolation at hospitals. Of the 108 confirmed cases, 59 (54.6%) were female. The most common age group was 20-29 years with 37 cases (34.3%). Regarding symptoms at the time of diagnosis, cough (n=38, 35.2%) and fever (n=34, 31.5%) were most common; 12 cases (11.1%) were asymptomatic. The source of infection was identified in 99 cases (91.7%). A total of 3,223 contacts were identified and quarantined. Household contacts accounted for 196, and the household secondary attack rate was 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7 to 12.9). The mean serial interval was estimated to be 5.54 days (95% CI, 4.08 to 7.01). After February 26, (Rt) remained below 1 in Busan.
Conclusions
The early containment strategy implemented in Busan shows that control is possible if outbreaks are of limited scope. In preparation for future outbreaks, public health and healthcare systems should be re-examined and put in a ready state.
Summary
Korean summary
2월 21일부터 3월 24일까지 부산시에서 보고된 108명의 코로나바이러스감염증-19 (코로나19) 확진 환자의 역학 조사 결과와 관리 조치를 기술하고 평가하였다. 초기에는 A 교회 클러스터와 다른 지역에서 유입된 사례로 인해 급격한 환자 증가가 있었고 이후 접촉자를 중심으로 2차 유행을 보였다. 2월 26일 이후 부산 지역의 Rt가 1보다 낮은 값을 보여 전파가 통제되고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 부산에서 초기 containment 전략을 시행한 결과 제한된 발생 규모인 경우 통제가 가능하다는 점을 확인하였다. 이후 발생할 유행에 대비해 적극적으로 공중보건 및 보건의료 체계를 정비하고 준비해야 할 것으로 생각된다
Key Message

Citations

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