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Eun Hee Ha 4 Articles
Cohort profile: the Ewha Birth and Growth Study
Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Jungwon Min, Eun Jeong Choi, Ui Jeong Kim, Hyun Jin Park, Eun Ae Park, Su Jin Cho, Hae Soon Kim, Hwayoung Lee, Young Ju Kim, Young Sun Hong, Eui-Jung Kim, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021016.   Published online February 22, 2021
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  • 375 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.
Korean summary
이화영아성장코호트는 만성질환 예방을 위한 생애초기 위험인자에 대한 근거를 제공하기 위해 2001년에 시작되었습니다. 이화영아성장코호트는 국내에서 선도적인 장기 추적관찰 연구로, 소아기 건강과 관련된 산전 및 출생 시 특징, 소아기 대사와 관련된 유전적 혹은 후성학적 특성, 내분비 장애물질 노출에 따른 영향, 소아기의 식이패턴과 같은 다양한 연구결과들을 발표하였습니다. 추후 청년기의 자료 수집을 계획하고 있으며, 우리의 연구결과는 만성질환 예방을 위한 중재 개발에 기여할 것으로 기대됩니다.
Key Message
To provide evidence of early life risk factors for the prevention of chronic diseases, the Ewha Birth and Growth Study was started in 2001. The Ewha Birth and Growth cohort is a leading long-term follow-up study in Korea, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. We are planning to collect data for early adulthood, and our findings will contribute to the development of interventions to prevent chronic diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prospective association between phthalate exposure in childhood and liver function in adolescence: the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study
    Seonhwa Lee, Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Hyejin Han, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
    Environmental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • BMI trajectory and inflammatory effects on metabolic syndrome in adolescents
    Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Hyunjin Park, Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Jungwon Min, Eun Ae Park, Su Jin Cho, Hae Soon Kim, Hwayoung Lee, Young Ju Kim, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Seungyoun Jung, Hyesook Park
    Pediatric Research.2023; 94(1): 153.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Childhood Obesity or Sarcopenic Obesity on Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence: The Ewha Birth and Growth Study
    Hyunjin Park, Seunghee Jun, Hye-Ah Lee, Hae Soon Kim, Young Sun Hong, Hyesook Park
    Metabolites.2023; 13(1): 133.     CrossRef
  • Synergistic effect of serum uric acid and body mass index trajectories during middle to late childhood on elevation of liver enzymes in early adolescence: Findings from the Ewha Birth and Growth Study
    Sung Hee Lee, Eun Jeong Choi, Ui Jeong Kim, Hyunjin Park, Bomi Park, Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park, Linglin Xie
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(4): e0282830.     CrossRef
  • The association between urinary cotinine level and metabolic syndrome profiles among adolescents: findings from the Ewha Birth and growth study
    Hyunjin Park, Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Seunghee Jun, Bomi Park, Hye Ah Lee, Hae Soon Kim, Hyesook Park
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Mediating Effect of Inflammation between the Dietary and Health-Related Behaviors and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence
    Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Hyunjin Park, Hye-Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Haesoon Kim, Youngsun Hong, Seungyoun Jung, Hyesook Park
    Nutrients.2022; 14(11): 2339.     CrossRef
  • Precision medicine via the integration of phenotype-genotype information in neonatal genome project
    Xinran Dong, Tiantian Xiao, Bin Chen, Yulan Lu, Wenhao Zhou
    Fundamental Research.2022; 2(6): 873.     CrossRef
  • Association of participation in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 with mental disorders and suicidal behaviour
    Martta Kerkelä, Mika Gissler, Juha Veijola
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022005.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory patterns for continuous metabolic syndrome score in childhood and the cardiovascular risk in adolescence
    Eun Jeong Choi, Hye Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Bohyun Park, Hae Soon Kim, Young Sun Hong, Hyesook Park
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Associations between Social Support, Health-Related Behaviors, Socioeconomic Status and Depression in Medical Students
Yoolwon Jeong, Jin Young Kim, Jae Seon Ryu, Ko eun Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010009.   Published online November 24, 2010
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  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in medical students and to evaluate whether interpersonal social support, health-related behaviors, and socio-economic factors were associated with depression in medical students.


The subjects in this study were 120 medical students in Seoul, Korea who were surveyed in September, 2008. The subjects were all women and over the age of 20. Their age, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep, diet, household income, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise levels, and self-reported health status were surveyed. The degree of perceived social support was measured using the interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL). Depression was evaluated using the center for epidemiology studies depression scale (CES-D).


The mean CES-D score was 14.1±8.6 and 37.1% of the participants appeared to suffer from depression. Low levels of perceived interpersonal support increased the risk of depression by more than 10 times and having higher household income did not necessarily decrease the risk of depression.


Medical students have a relatively high level of depression. Efforts should be made to encourage social support in order to promote mental health in medical students.



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  • Prevalence of Depression Among Undergraduate Medical Students in India: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
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  • Impact of Criterion Versus Norm-Referenced Assessment on the Quality of Life in Korean Medical Students
    Ce Hwan Park, Jihyeon Kwon, Jong Tae Lee, Sangzin Ahn
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Anxiety, Depression and Stress Among Medical Students in Malaysia During COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study
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    Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences.2023; 19(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • Behavioral and psychosocial factors related to mental distress among medical students
    Kathleen M. Carlos, Hedyeh Ahmadi, Kristina A. Uban, Jenna L. Riis
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Negative Life Events, Social Ties, and Depressive Symptoms for Older Adults in China
    Hangqing Ruan, Ke Shen, Feinian Chen
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Background factors associated with academic motivation for attending medical school immediately after admission in Japan: A single‐center study
    Takashi Watari, Nobuhiro Nagai, Kaori Kono, Kazumichi Onigata
    Journal of General and Family Medicine.2022; 23(3): 164.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between Positive Orientation and Control of Anger, Anxiety and Depression in Nursing Students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Ewa Kupcewicz, Marzena Mikla, Helena Kadučáková, Elżbieta Grochans, Maria Dolores Roldán Valcarcel, Anna Maria Cybulska
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 2482.     CrossRef
  • Ego-resiliency moderates the risk of depression and social anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation in medical students
    Eun Hyun Seo, Hae-Jung Yang, Seung-Gon Kim, Hyung-Jun Yoon
    Annals of General Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Depression in medical students: prevalence, dynamics and comorbidity
    V.V. Ruzhenkova, I.S. Khamskaya, Yu.N. Gomelak
    Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova.2022; 122(6): 7.     CrossRef
  • The moderating effect of social resources on the link between study-related stressors and depressive symptoms among medical students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany – a cross-sectional study
    Nora Kappner, Jessica Lang, Anne Berthold, Petra Maria Gaum
    BMC Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(18): 11496.     CrossRef
  • Medical students’ crisis-induced stress and the association with social support
    Vera M. A. Broks, Karen M. Stegers-Jager, Jeroen van der Waal, Walter W. van den Broek, Andrea M. Woltman, Muhammad A. Z. Mughal
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(12): e0278577.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(2): 633.     CrossRef
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    BMC Medical Education.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Global Psychiatry.2019; 2(2): 211.     CrossRef
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    Meng Shi, Li Liu, Zi Yue Wang, Lie Wang
    BMC Psychiatry.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hong-Kyeung Chang, So-Jin Lee, Chul-Soo Park, Bong-Jo Kim, Cheol-Soon Lee, Boseok Cha, Dongyun Lee, Ji-Yeong Seo
    Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology.2015; 22(2): 64.     CrossRef
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    Bomi Kim, Hyerin Roh
    Korean Journal of Medical Education.2014; 26(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • Depressive symptoms in outpatients with heart failure: Importance of inflammatory biomarkers, disease severity and personality
    Corline Brouwers, Nina Kupper, Aline J. Pelle, Balász M. Szabó, Bert L.W.J.J.M. Westerhuis, Johan Denollet
    Psychology & Health.2014; 29(5): 564.     CrossRef
    Sahu P. C, Inamdar I. F, Mohammed Ubaidulla, Saleem Tambe, Gadekar R.D, Sonkar V. K., Doibale M. K.
    Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental sciences.2013; 2(22): 3978.     CrossRef
  • Quality of Life of Medical Students during Clinical Clerkship
    Nho-Eun Kim, Sung-Min Cho
    Korean Journal of Medical Education.2012; 24(4): 353.     CrossRef
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    Ewa Mojs, Katarzyna Warchol-Biederman, Wlodzimierz Samborski
    Psychology.2012; 03(02): 132.     CrossRef
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Hebei Spirit oil spill exposure and acute neuropsychiatric effects on residents participating in clean-up work.
Jin Hee Eum, Hae Kwan Cheong, Mina Ha, Ho Jang Kwon, Eun Hee Ha, Yun Chul Hong, Ye Yong Choi, Woo Chul Jeong, Jong Il Hur, Seungmin Lee, Eun Jung Kim, Eun Hee Lee, So Young Lee Ahn, Jong Hun Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(2):239-251.   Published online December 31, 2008
  • 8,223 View
  • 17 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hebei Spirit oil spill accident has brought about the worst coastal oil contamination in Korean history. Following the accident, residents and volunteers, number exceeding a million from nationwide, were exposed to chemicals from the crude oil itself and dispersants, including volatility organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals through the clean-up works over months. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of clean-up work on the peripheral nerve function and psychologic status of the residents after a prolonged exposure to clean-up work after the oil spill exposure.
We performed a study on the residents of Jango-do Island, Chungnam, on 5 and 12 January 2008, six to eight weeks after the accident. A questionnaire on general characteristics, Korean Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), color vision test (Lanthony desaturated D-15 test), and vibration perception threshold test were done. Among 210 residents with 30 years or older, 63 (30%) finished questionnaires and completed at least one among K-BDI, color vision test, or vibration perception threshold test. Descriptive statistics was done on the residents.
The residents participated in clean-up work for average 20 days, max 30 days, during 6 weeks following the accident. Average work hours were 7.4 hours per day, max 10 hours. On K-BDI, 21 (33.3%) had a severe depressive state. Mean color confusion index was 1.29 in the right and 1.20 in the left. Mean vibration perception threshold was 3.69 VU (right) and 3.55 VU (left), respectively.
AND CONCLUSIONS: Compared to literature report, the residents had higher depression scale. Color vision threshold was not higher compared to general population near an industrial complex. Vibration perception threshold was significantly higher than the residents of similar age living near an abandoned mine in southern coastal area only in the age group of forties. These suggests there is some evidence of neuropsychiatric effect related to oil cleaning work and a mid- and long-term study of the oil exposure health effects with continuous monitoring should be done for the exposed residents in the affected area.


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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(5): 1006.     CrossRef
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  • Community mental health status six months after the Sewol ferry disaster in Ansan, Korea
    Hee Jung Yang, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Min-Ho Shin, Hyeon Woo Yim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Gawon Kim, Soon Young Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2015; 37: e2015046.     CrossRef
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    Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.2012; 21(3): 288.     CrossRef
  • Psychological Health in Residents Participating in Clean-up Works of Hebei Spirit Oil Spill
    Minkyo Song, Yun-Chul Hong, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon, Eun-Hee Ha, Yeyong Choi, Woo-Chul Jeong, Jongil Hur, Seung-Min Lee, Eun-Jung Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(2): 82.     CrossRef
A Trial for Association between Oxidative Stress in Midterm Pregnancy and Postnatal Growth during the First Year of Life.
Hyesook Park, Young Ju Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Eun Ae Park, Nam Soo Chang, Eun Hee Ha, Bo Hyun Park, Bo Eun Lee, Ju Hee Hong
Korean J Epidemiol. 2004;26(1):17-26.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We aims to construct Infant Growth Cohort for evaluating whether oxidative stress in midterm pregnancy has an adverse effect on postnatal growth.
AND MATERIALS: From September 2001 to April 2004, we constructed an Ewha Infant Growth Cohort connected with the Ewha Pregnant Women Cohort. We excluded mother-and-child pairs in which the mother had experienced hypertension or diabetes during pregnancy and had multiple births for this study, which gave us 233 mother-and-child pairs for analysis. We measured maternal serum homocysteine and urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 24~28 weeks of pregnancy, and infant weights at birth and at 6 and 12 months postnatally. We applied repeated measures ANOVA with PROC MIXED to assess the significance of differences.
We followed 64 and 85 infants at 6 and 12 months respectively. The mean body weights were 3146.4 g at birth, 8229.7 g at 6 months, and 1006.47 g at 12 months. The mean birth weight of infants was lower in mothers with higher homocysteine levels (third and fourth quartiles), but body weights from the first- and fourth-quartile groups of maternal homocysteine levels were lower than the others even though it was not statistically significant. Body weights at birth and at 6 months in third- and fourth-quartile groups of 8-OHdG levels were lower than the others. The body weights in the fourth quartile MDA group were significantly lower than the others at all time points.
Maternal oxidative stress in midterm pregnancy may cause postnatal growth retardation. But, there were high rate of follow up loss and various measurement errors. Therefore, we need to have efforts for compete follow up and valid and reliable measurements.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health