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Erdenetuya Bolormaa 2 Articles
Does the father’s job matter? Parental occupation and preterm birth in South Korea
Taemi Kim, Eunseon Gwak, Erdenetuya Bolormaa, Jeong-Won Oh, Jung-won Yoon, Myoung-Hee Kim, Jia Ryu, Seung-Ah Choe
Epidemiol Health. 2023;e2023078.   Published online August 24, 2023
DOI:    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Limited evidence is available regarding the impact of paternal occupation and its combined effect with maternal occupation on preterm birth. Therefore, we assessed the association of maternal and paternal occupations with preterm birth.
We used the national birth data of South Korea between 2010 and 2020. Parental occupations were divided into 5 categories: (1) managers; (2) professionals, technicians, and related workers; (3) clerks and support workers; (4) service and sales workers; and (5) manual workers. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of extremely, very, and moderate-to-late preterm births per occupational category considering individual risk factors.
For the 4,004,976 singleton births, 40.2% of mothers and 95.5% of fathers were employed. Compared to non-employment, employment was associated with a lower risk of preterm birth. Among employed mothers, service and sales occupations were associated with a higher risk of preterm birth than managerial occupations (aOR=1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.10 for moderate-to-late preterm births). The father’s manual occupation was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (aOR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.05–1.13 for moderate-to-late preterm) than managerial occupations. When both parents had high-risk occupations, the risk of preterm birth was higher than in cases where only the mother or neither of the parents had a high-risk occupation.
Paternal occupation was associated with preterm birth regardless of maternal employment and occupation and modified the effect of maternal occupation. Detailed occupational environment data are needed to identify the paternal exposures that increase the risk.
Income-based disparities in the risk of distant-stage cervical cancer and 5-year mortality after the introduction of a National Cancer Screening Program in Korea
Erdenetuya Bolormaa, Seung-Ah Choe, Mia Son, Myung Ki, Domyung Paek
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022066.   Published online August 11, 2022
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
This study assessed the socioeconomic gradient in the risk of distant-stage cervical cancer (CC) at presentation and 5-year mortality for new CC patients after the introduction of a national Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in Korea.
All new CC cases from 2007 to 2017 were retrieved from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database linked with the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service. The age-standardized cumulative incidence of CC, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of distant metastasis at presentation, and adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) within 5 years post-diagnosis were assessed according to the income gradient.
The 11-year age-standardized cumulative incidence of CC ranged from 48.9 to 381.5 per 100,000 women, with the richest quintile having the highest incidence. Of 31,391 new cases, 8.6% had distant metastasis on presentation, which was most frequent among Medical Aid beneficiaries (9.9%). Distant-stage CC was more likely when the income level was lower (OR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]), 1.28 to 1.67 for the lowest compared to the richest) and among Medical Aid beneficiaries (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.82). The 5-year mortality was greater in the lower-income quintiles and Medical Aid beneficiaries than in the richest quintile.
The incidence of CC was higher in the richest quintile than in the lower income quintiles, while the risk of distant-stage CC and mortality was higher for women in lower income quintiles in the context of the NCSP. A more focused approach is needed to further alleviate disparities in the timely diagnosis and treatment of CC.
Korean summary
새로이 자궁경부암을 진단받은 여성에서 소득수준에 따른 진단시 원격 전이가 있을 위험도와 진단 이후 5년 사망위험도를 연령과 체질량 지수등의 개인 수준의 위험 요인을 보정하여 구했다. 소득 수준이 낮을수록, 의료급여 환자일수록 진단시 원격 전이가 있을 위험과 5년 내 사망 위험이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 자궁경부암에 대한 전국민 대상 선별 검사가 있지만 여전히 소득 수준에 따른 자궁경부암의 적시 진단과 진단 후 생존의 불평등이 남아 있으며 이에 대한 추가 정책이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study adds empirical evidence for an income-based disparity in the cancer stage at presentation and five-year survival among cervical cancer patients even in the presence of a universal screening program.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Individual and joint effect of socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors on cancer in Korea
    Chi Lan Tran, Kui Son Choi, Sun‐Young Kim, Jin‐Kyoung Oh
    Cancer Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

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