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Chang-Mo Oh 6 Articles
The association of pancreatic cancer incidence with smoking status and smoking amount in Korean men
Do Jin Nam, Chang-Mo Oh, Eunhee Ha, Min-Ho Kim, Eun Hye Yang, Hyo Choon Lee, Soon Su Shin, Woo Yeon Hwang, Ann Hee You, Jae-Hong Ryoo
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022040.   Published online April 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022040
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  • 394 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Our study examined the dose-response relationship between smoking amounts (pack-years) and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in Korean men.
METHODS
Of 125,743 participants who underwent medical health checkups in 2009, 121,408 were included in the final analysis and observed for the development of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the associations between smoking amounts and incident pancreatic cancer in 4 groups classified by pack-year amounts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident pancreatic cancer by comparing groups 2 (<20 pack-year smokers), 3 (20-≤40 pack-year smokers), and 4 (>40 pack-year smokers) with group 1 (never smokers).
RESULTS
During 527,974.5 person-years of follow-up, 245 incident cases of pancreatic cancer developed between 2009 and 2013. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for incident pancreatic cancer in groups 2, 3, and 4 were 1.05 (0.76 to 1.45), 1.28 (0.91 to 1.80), and 1.57 (1.00 to 2.46), respectively (p for trend=0.025). The HR (95% CI) of former smokers showed a dose-response relationship in the unadjusted model, but did not show a statistically significant association in the multivariate-adjusted model. The HR (95% CI) of current smokers showed a dose-response relationship in both the unadjusted (p for trend=0.020) and multivariate-adjusted models (p for trend=0.050).
CONCLUSIONS
The risk of developing pancreatic cancer was higher in current smokers status than in former smokers among Korean men, indicating that smoking cessation may have a protective effect.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 대한민국 남성을 대상으로 흡연양 및 흡연상태에 따른 췌장암 발병을 분석하였다. 흡연양이 많을수록, 현재 흡연상태일수록 췌장암 발병이 높았고, 금연한 경우 췌장암의 발병이 낮은 것을 확인할 수 있었다.
Key Message
As a result of analyzing the incidence of pancreatic cancer according to the amount of smoking and smoking status among Korean men, it was confirmed that the more smoked and the current smoking status, the higher the incidence of pancreatic cancer, and the lower the incidence of pancreatic cancer when quitting smoking.
The influence of the dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E on the risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia in a cohort of Koreans
Sung Keun Park, Yeongu Chung, Chang-Mo Oh, Jae-Hong Ryoo, Ju Young Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022062.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022062
  • 1,852 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Studies have suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, has a potential role in inhibiting gastric carcinogenesis. The present study investigated the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the incidence of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM).
METHODS
This study included 67,657 Koreans free of GIM who periodically underwent health check-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized into 4 groups by quartiles of dietary vitamin C and vitamin E intake. The Cox proportional hazard assumption was used to determine the multivariable hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for GIM.
RESULTS
The third and fourth quartiles of vitamin C intake had a lower risk of GIM than the first quartile (multivariable-adjusted HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.03 in the second quartile, HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97 in the third quartile, and HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.95 in the fourth quartile). Vitamin E intake greater than the second quartile level was significantly associated with a lower risk of GIM than the first quartile (multivariable-adjusted HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97 in the second quartile, HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99 in the third quartile, and HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94 in the fourth quartile). This association was observed only in the subgroup analysis for men.
CONCLUSIONS
Higher dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E was associated with a lower risk of GIM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 6만명 이상의 한국인을 대상으로 비타민 C와 비타민 E의 섭취량과 장기적인 위 장상피화생 (GIM) 발생 위험도의 상관 관계를 연구했다. 우리는 비타민 C와 E 섭취량이 많은 근로 연령대의 한국인에서 낮은 위 장상피화생 발생 위험을 확인했다. 이 연관성은 여성보다 남성에서 더 분명하게 나타났다.
Key Message
1. This study investigated the long-term effect of vitamin C and vitamin E intake on the longitudinal risk of GIM in more than 60,000 Koreans 2. We found increased intake of Vitamin C/E is associated with lower incidental risk of GIM in working aged Korean. 3. This association was more prominent in men than women.
The risk of gastric cancer according to changes in smoking status among Korean men
Sung Keun Park, Min-Ho Kim, Chang-Mo Oh, Eunhee Ha, Eun Hye Yang, Woo Yeon Hwang, Ann Hee You, Jae-Hong Ryoo
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022086.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022086
  • 787 View
  • 123 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Smoking is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Studies have shown that the risk of gastric cancer can vary by smoking status and smoking amount at a single point in time. However, few data have been reported about the effect of changes in smoking status over time on the risk of gastric cancer.
METHODS
This study collected data from the National Health Insurance Corporation in Korea on 97,700 Korean men without gastric cancer who underwent health check-ups from 2002 to 2013. The smoking status (never smoked, quit smoking, and currently smoking) of study participants was assessed in 2003-2004 and 2009, and the results were categorized into 7 groups: never-never, never-quit, never-current, quit-quit, quit-current, current-quit, and current-current. Participants were followed until 2013 to identify incident gastric cancer. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident gastric cancer according to changes in smoking status and smoking amount (pack-years).
RESULTS
Compared with group 1 (never-never), participants currently smoking in 2009 (never-current, quit-current, and current-current) had higher HRs for gastric cancer (never-quit: 1.077; 95% CI, 0.887 to 1.306, never-current: 1.347; 95% CI, 0.983 to1.846, quit-quit: 1.086; 95% CI, 0.863 to 1.366, quit-current: 1.538; 95% CI, 1.042 to 2.269, current-quit: 1.339; 95% CI, 1.077 to 1.666, and current-current: 1.589; 95% CI, 1.355 to 1.864, respectively). The risk for gastric cancer was highest in heavy smokers, followed by moderate smokers.
CONCLUSIONS
In all categories of smoking status, current smoking was associated with the highest risk of gastric cancer. Heavy smoking was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, even in former smokers.
Summary
Korean summary
현재 흡연자의 경우 과거 흡연여부와 관계 없이 위암의 위험성이 가장 증가한다. 과거 흡연자의 경우에는 흡연량이 많은 경우에는 위암의 위험성이 증가한다. 이런 결과는 금연이나 흡연량을 줄이는 것이 위암의 위험성을 감소시키는데 매우 중요한 요인이란 것을 확인할 수 있다.
Key Message
Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, regardless of previous smoking status. Although former smoking was not associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, former smokers with a history of heavy smoking had an increased risk of gastric cancer. These results suggest that smoking cessation and reducing smoking amounts are both important factors in reducing the risk of gastric cancer.
Multimorbidity patterns by health-related quality of life status in older adults: An association rules and network analysis utilizing Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Thi-Ngoc Tran, Sanghee Lee, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyunsoon Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2022;e2022113.   Published online November 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022113    [Accepted]
  • 560 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Objectives
Improved life expectancy has increased the prevalence of older adults living with multimorbidity, which likely deteriorates their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, less is known about patterns and the relationships of multimorbidity by HRQoL status in older adults.
Methods
Individuals aged 65 or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-VII (2010-2018) were analyzed. HRQoL was assessed by the EQ-5D questionnaire and categorized into three groups: poor, normal, and good. The impact of multimorbidity on HRQoL was evaluated using logistic regression. The patterns and inter-relationships between multimorbidities, stratified by the HRQoL groups, were analyzed using the association rule and network analysis approach.
Results
Multimorbidity status was significantly associated with poor HRQoL (3 or more diseases vs. none: aOR = 2.70, 95% CI, 2.10–3.46). Hypertension, arthritis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes were the most prevalent diseases across all HRQoL groups. The complex interrelationships of morbidities, higher prevalence, and node strengths in all diseases were observed in the poor HRQoL group, particularly arthritis, depression, and stroke, compared to other groups (1.5~3 times higher, all p-values <.05). Apart from hypertension, arthritis and hyperlipidemia had a higher prevalence and stronger connections with other diseases in women, whereas diabetes and stroke in men with poor HRQoL.
Conclusions
Our study revealed that multimorbidity patterns were complicatedly inter-correlated disease networks in the poor HRQoL group and diversed by sex. These findings enhance the understanding of multimorbidity connections and help inform health care needs for older adults, especially those with poor HRQoL.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
National Epidemiologic Survey of Thyroid cancer (NEST) in Korea
Chang-Mo Oh, Hyun-Joo Kong, Eunyang Kim, Hyejin Kim, Kyu-Won Jung, Sohee Park, Young-Joo Won
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018052.   Published online October 26, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018052
  • 8,978 View
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  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
The Korea Central Cancer Registry conducted the National Epidemiologic Survey of Thyroid cancer (NEST) to investigate changes in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer patients between 1999 and 2008. The NEST was designed to collect representative samples of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed in the years 1999, 2005, and 2008 using a proportionally stratified and systematic random sampling method. Among 42,891 participants diagnosed with thyroid cancer, 5,796 participants were included in the final study population. This survey collected information on diagnostic methods and date, route of diagnosis, prior medical history and history of thyroid-related disease, tumor, lymph node, metastasis and collaborative stage, and treatment. The NEST dataset was also linked to the cause-of-death database from Statistics Korea. The mean age of the study participants was 46.9 years. The ratio of men to women was 1:5.5. In the analysis of the histologic type of cancer, the proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma showed an increasing trend (p<0.01). In contrast, the proportion of distant metastasis and the mean tumor size of thyroid cancers showed decreasing trends over time (p<0.01, respectively).
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message

Citations

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The unrealized potential: cohort effects and age-period-cohort analysis
Jongho Heo, Sun-Young Jeon, Chang-Mo Oh, Jongnam Hwang, Juhwan Oh, Youngtae Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017056.   Published online December 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017056
  • 12,828 View
  • 390 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This study aims to provide a systematical introduction of age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to South Korean readers who are unfamiliar with this method (we provide an extended version of this study in Korean). As health data in South Korea has substantially accumulated, population-level studies that explore long-term trends of health status and health inequalities and identify macrosocial determinants of the trends are needed. Analyzing long-term trends requires to discern independent effects of age, period, and cohort using APC analysis. Most existing health and aging literature have used cross-sectional or short-term available panel data to identify age or period effects ignoring cohort effects. This under-use of APC analysis may be attributed to the identification (ID) problem caused by the perfect linear dependency across age, period, and cohort. This study explores recently developed three APC models to address the ID problem and adequately estimate the effects of A-P-C: intrinsic estimator-APC models for tabular age by period data; hierarchical cross-classified random effects models for repeated cross-sectional data; and hierarchical APC-growth curve models for accelerated longitudinal panel data. An analytic exemplar for each model was provided. APC analysis may contribute to identifying biological, historical, and socioeconomic determinants in long-term trends of health status and health inequalities as well as examining Korean’s aging trajectories and temporal trends of period and cohort effects. For designing effective health policies that improve Korean population’s health and reduce health inequalities, it is essential to understand independent effects of the three temporal factors by using the innovative APC models.
Summary
Korean summary
-건강수준 및 건강불평등의 장기적인 추이에 미치는 연령, 기간, 출생 코호트의 독립적인 영향을 분해하는 방법인 연령-기간-코호트 분석법(Age-Period-Cohort analysis)을 국내 보건의료 연구자들에게 체계적으로 소개함 -APC 분석법은 건강수준 및 건강행태, 건강불평등의 추세 분석 및 고령화, 만성질환, 생애주기 연구 등에 있어서 널리 활용될 수 있음 -APC 연구 결과를 바탕으로 향후 보건의료 정책에 있어서도 기간 또는 연령에 따른 정책뿐 아니라 코호트에 특정한 정책들도 고려되어야 할 필요가 있음
Key Message

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